Skip to main content

Full text of "The manufacture of iron and steel tubes"

See other formats


UC-NRLF 


SB    572    3bfl 


,       . 


THE    MANUFACTURE 


OF 


IRON  AND  STEEL  TUBES. 


BY 

EDWARD  C.  R,  MARKS, 

Associate  Member  of  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers;  Member  of  the  Institution  of 
Mechanical  Engineers;  Fellow  of  the  Chartered  Institute  of  Patent  Agents; 

AUTHOR   OF 

"Notes  on  the  Construction  of  Cranes  and  Lifting  Machinery"  "The  Evolution  of 

Modern  Small  Arms  and  Ammunition,"  "Mechanical  Engineering  Materials," 

"  Notes  on  the  Construction  and  Working  of  Pumps." 


SECOND    AND    ENLARGED    EDITION. 

PRICE   F|VE    SHILLINGS   NET, 


1903. 

THE   TECHNICAL    PUBLISHING  COMPANY  LIMITED, 
287,  DEANSGATE,  MANCHESTER. 

JOHN  HEYWOOD, 

29  AND  30,  SHOE  LANE,  LONDON;  AND  RIDGEFIELD,  MANCHESTER. 
And  all  Booksellers. 


o 


PREFACE   TO   SECOND   EDITION. 


THIS  edition  contains  the  whole  of  the  original  matter,  with  the 
necessary  revision  respecting  the  present  condition  of  the  various 
patents  referred  to. 

The  eighth  and  succeeding  chapters  contain  additional  general 
particulars  relating  to  the  manufacture  of  iron  and  steel  tubes,  and 
refer  specifically  to  pertinent  British  patent  specifications  published 
between  the  former  and  the  present  edition  of  this  little  work. 

The  List  .of  Patents  given  as  an  appendix  has  been  thoroughly 
revised  and  brought  up  to  date.  Though  not  completely  exhaustive, 
the  author  believes  that  it  will  be  found  useful  to  manufacturers  and 
others  as  affording  a  ready  and  convenient  key  to  the  "  state  of  the  art " 
in  the  various  branches  of  this  industry. 

E.  C.  R.  M. 

13,  Temple  Street,  Birmingham, 
July,  1903. 


rvi 


PREFACE   TO   FIRST   EDITION. 

THE  series  of  articles  herewith  presented  in  book  form  comprise  a 
development  of  a  special  course  of  lectures  delivered  by  the  author 
during  the  last  session  of  the  Birmingham  Municipal  Technical  School. 
As  a  summary  of  the  past  efforts  and  achievements  of  inventors, 
based  on  their  patent  specifications,  the  author  trusts  that  the  work 
will  prove  of  some  practical  utility  to  manufacturers  and  others 
interested  in  iron  and  steel  tubes. 

E;  C.  R.  M. 

13,  Temple  Street,  Birmingham, 
July,  1897. 


CONTENTS. 


CHAPTER  I.  PAGE 

Introduction — The  Manufacture  of  Gun  Barrels  from  Wrought- 

irou  Strip — Gas  Tubes — W  hitehouse's  Patent    1 — 8 

CHAPTER  II. 
Steam  Tubes  and  Patents  relating  thereto    9 —  1 6 

CHAPTER  III. 

Open  or  Close  Jointed  Tubes — The  Manufacture  of  Tubes  from 
Coiled  Strips  —  Lock-jointed  Tubes  —  Tubes  with  Internal 
Web  16—23 

CHAPTER  IV. 

Seamless  Steel  Tubes — Seamless  Tubes  direct  from  Molten  or 
Plastic  Metal  —  Tubes  with  Helical  Grain  or  Fibre  —  The 
Application  of  Punching  or  Extending  Processes  for  Producing 
Steel  Tubes  from  Discs  or  Blanks— Steel  Gas  Bottles  24—31 

CHAPTER  V. 
The  Mannesman]}  Processes — The  Stiefel  Process 32 — 41 

CHAPTER  VI. 

Various  Processes  and  Machinery  relating  to  the  Manufacture  of 
Seamless  Steel  Tubes— Process  of  Stiff  and  the  Credenda 
Tube  Company  for  Piercing  Tube  Ingots  or  Blooms — Drawing 
Tubes  with  an  Internal  Taper — Taper  Tubes — Making  Seam- 
less Tubes  from  Ingots  having  Cores  of  Yielding  Refractory 
Material  — Tube  Rolls  with  Helical  Grooves — Piercing  Tube 
Ingots — Tube  Rolling — Withdrawing  Tubes  from  Mandrels — 
Jointed  Mandrel  for  Tube  Coiling  and  Bending — Tube-making 
Machinery  by  American  Inventors — Cooling  Mandrels — Roller 
Mandrels  —  Revolving  Dies  —  Expanding  External  Rolls  in 
conjunction  with  Internal  Tube  Expander 42 — 70 


Vlll.  CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER  VII.                                       PAGE 
Robertson  Processes — Ehrhardt  Processes  70 83 

CHAPTER  VIII. 

The  Piercing  of  Solid  Steel  Billets— Drilling— Manuesinann  and 
Stiefel  Processes  —  Charnock's  Patent — Patents  of  Sturgeon, 
Davis,  Pilkington,  Sharp  and  Billing,  Robertson— Robertson's 
"Service  Plate" — Frank's  Retreating  Holding- up  Stem — 
Defects  at  End  of  Pierced  Billet — "Rokes" — Patent  of  Evans 
and  Tubes  Limited  —  The  Ehrhardt  Process  —  Cooper's 
Patent  84—97 

CHAPTER  IX. 

The  Extension  of  Hollow  Steel  Blooms  by  Hot  Rolling  and  Draw- 
ing—  Gapped,  Back  action,  or  Pilger  Rolls  —  Mannesmann's 
Patent— Patents  of  Price  and  others— Feeding  Machines  for 
Pilger  Rolls  —  Automatic  Release  of  Mandrel  —  Patents  of 
Ehrhardt  and  others — Movement  of  Rolls  and  Mandrel  in 
Opposite  Directions — Patents  of  Beesly  and  others — Taper 
Tubular  Steel  Poles  97—108 

CHAPTER  X. 

Cold  Drawing — Draw  Benches — Reeling — Tin  Coating  to  facilitate 
Drawing — Combined  Drawing  and  Rolling — Drawing  Weldless 
Tubes  with  Butt  Ends  or  Thickened  Ends — Annealing  and 
Pickling — Combined  Annealing  and  Pickling — Substitution  of 
Electric  Scaling  for  Pickling— Steel  for  Weldless  Tube  Manu- 
facture— Results  from  Tests 108—121 

CHAPTER  XL 

Welded  Tubes — Steam,  Water,  and  Gas  Tubes — Leading  Dimen- 
sions— Butt  and  Lap  Welding — Recent  Patents 121 — 127 

CHAPTER  XII. 
Production  of  Tubes  direct  from  Piled  Hollow   Blooms — Perrius' 

Patent— Cased  or  Composite  Tubes 127—1:1:1 


APPENDIX. 
British  Patent  Specifications  relating  to  the  Manufacture  of  Iron 

and  Steel  Tubes  134— 153 

Index    ,  ,.  154—156 


THE    MANTJFACTTJKE 

OF 

AND    STEEL    TUBES. 

CHAPTER  L— INTRODUCTION. 

A  TUBE  has  been  defined  as  "anything  hollow  or  concave, 
with  some  degree  of  length."  Such  a  definition  has  certainly 
the  merit  of  comprehensiveness,  for,  as  one  critic  observes, 
it  will  include  ua  railway  tunnel  or  a  coffee  pot,  a  decayed 
tooth  or  a  drain  pipe;"  Although  the  title  of  the  series  of 
articles  commencing  herewith  will  be  sufficient  by  its 
limitation  of  the  material  'of  construction  to  prevent  any 
such  hopeless  confusion  in  the  minds  of  our  readers,  yet  we 
have  no  intention  of  attempting  to  treat  of  iron  and  steel 
tubes  of  any  and  every  form,  but  shall  confine  ourselves 
chiefly  to  butt  and  lap  welded  tubes  of  iron,  open  or  close 
jointed  and  consolidated  tubes,  and  processes  and  appliances 
for  the  production  of  weld! ess  or  seamless  steel  tubing  for 
various  purposes. 

The  articles  are  based  upon  the  printed  patent  specifi- 
cations relating  to  this  subject,  and  the  illustrations  are 
prepared  from  the  drawings  attached  to  such  specifications. 
To  enable  the  reader  to  make  a  closer  study  of  any  of 
the  specifications  referred  to,  the  official  number  and  date, 
of  each  will  be  given,  and  as  far  as  possible  the  lapsing  of 
such  patents  as  have  been  granted  during  the  past  fourteen 
years  through  the  non-payment  of  renewal  fees  will  be 
recorded. 

2ST 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF  GUN  BARRELS  FROM  WROUGHT 
IRON  STRIP. 

Probably  the  manufacture  of  barrels  for  firearms  con- 
stitutes the  earliest  application  of  wrought-iron  tubes. 
Such  an  industry  would  find  employment  for  many  smiths 
in  the  time  when  the  only  known  method  of  production 
consisted  in  the  bending  of  an  iron  plate  or  strip  to  form  a 
"skelp,"  the  edges  of  which  were  welded  together  piecemeal 
by  hammering,  the  internal  support  during  the  welding 
being  provided  by  the  insertion  of  a  rod  or  mandrel. 

In  the  year  1812,  Henry  Osborn,  of  Birmingham,  obtained 
letters  patent  for  his  invention,  described  in  specification 
No.  3617,  of  1812,  "for  machinery  for  welding  and  making 


FIG.  1. 

barrels  of  firearms  and  other  cylindrical  articles."  The 
specification  is  accompanied  by  a  sheet  of  drawings  giving 
illustrations  of  the  improved  machinery,  such  as  shown  by 
the  adjoining  figs.  1  and  2  herewith.  Referring  to  fig.  1, 
the  skelp  is  raised  to  a  welding  heat  in  an  open  or  a  close 
fire,  and  after  the  mandrel  has  been  inserted  is  then  placed 
in  the  swage  or  anvil  A,  and  welded  by  the  action  of  the 
tilt  hammer.  In  the  words  of  the  specification,  "the 
different  grooves  in  the  swage  assist  in  gathering  the 
different  parts  of  the  barrel  or  cylinder  in  the  process  of 
welding." 

Referring  to  fig.  2,  the  inventor  states :  "  I  take  a  skelp, 
and*  place  it  in  either  of  the  beds  1,  2,  3,  according  to  the 
part  required  to  be  welded,  and  which  welding  is  effected 


IRON   AND   STEEL   TUBES. 


3 


by  the  swage  segments  A  performing  half  a  revolution,  the 
manner  of  which  is  explained  by  the  profile  B." 

In  the  following  year,  1813,  the  same  inventor,  Henry 
Osborn,  obtained  letters  pate  at  for  "  machinery  for  tapering 
gun  barrels,  &c.,"  which  he  describes  in  his  specification  No. 
3740,  of  1813.  The  tapering  is  effected  by  passing  the  tube 
through  grooved  rolls. 

GAS  TUBES. 

In  the  early  days  of  gas  lighting,  gun  barrels  were 
employed  for  the  conveyance  of  the  gas.  In  1815,  William 
Murdoch,  the  founder  of  gas  lighting,  in  setting  down  a 
gas  installation  at  the  Soho  Works,  near  Birmingham, 
employed  old  musket  barrels  screwed  together  as  the  means 
for  conveying  the  gas  throughout  the  works.  The  close  of 
the  long  European  war  had  thrown  an  abundance  of  such 
barrels  on  the  market,  and  hence  they  were  undoubtedly 


FIG.  2. 

the  most  economical  form  of  tubing  available  for  the 
purpose.  Some  one  has  been  unkind  enough  to  observe 
that  in  modern  times  Murdoch's  plan  has  been  reversed, 
for  instead  of  making  gas  pipes  from  gun  barrels,  it  is  said 
that  gun  barrels  for  the  African  and  other  remote  markets 
are  sometimes  made  from  gas  pipes. 

The  extension  of  gas  lighting  called  for  the  production  of 
iron  tubes  with  greater  facility  and  at  less  cost  than  by  the 
methods  employed  for  gun  barrel  making,  and  inventors 
were  equal  to  the  occasion.  In  the  year  1824,  James  Russell, 


4 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


of  Wednesbury,  filed  a  specification,  No.  4892,  setting  forth 
"an  improvement  in  the  manufacture  of  tubes  for  gas- 
and  other  purposes."  The  adjoining  fig.  3  represents  the 
apparatus  employed  for  welding.  The  tilt  hammer  is 


FIG.   3. 


retained,  but  the  weld  can  be  formed  either  with  or  without 
a  mandrel,  the  edges  being  butted  against  each  other, 
not  overlapped  as  in  guri-barrel  welding.  The  tube  is 
finished  between  rolls  in  conjunction  with  a  mandrel,  a» 


FIG.  4. 


shown  at  figs  4  and  5.  The  importance  of  this  specification 
is  in  the  disclosure  that  a  sufficiently  sound  weld  can  be 
made  by  pressing  or  forcing  the  abutting  edges  of  the  tube 
against  each  other.  With  this  method  of  welding  no 


IRON  AND   STEEL   TUBES. 


5 


allowance  is  necessary  in  the  width  of  the  strip  employed 
for  the  overlapping  of  the  edges,  as  with  lap-welding 
processes. 

In  1825,  Cornelius  Whitehouse,  of  Wednesbury,  invented 
the  process  of  butt-welding  wrought-iron  tubes,  which  is 
still  employed  in  all  such  tube  manufactories  at  the  present 
day.  The  process  is  described  in  the  specification,  No.  5109 
of  1825,  under  the  title  of  "Certain  improvements  in 
manufacturing  tubes  for  gas  and  other  purposes."  The 
apparatus,  as  described  by  the  inventor,  is  shown  in  the' 
adjoining  figs.  6,  7,  8,  and  9.  The  tilt  hammer  is  entirely 


FIG.  5. 

dispensed  with,  also  the  rolls  and  mandrel  of  the  afore- 
mentioned specification.  The  inventor  describes  his  process 
as  follows :  "I  prepare  a  piece  of  flat  iron,  commonly  called 
plough-plate  iron,  of  a  suitable  substance  and  width,  accord- 
ing to  the  intended  calibre  of  the  tube.  This  piece  of  flat 
iron  is  prepared  for  welding  by  being  bent  up  on  the  sides, 
or,  as  it  is  commonly  termed,  turned  over,  the  edges  meeting, 
or  nearly  so,  and  the  piece  assuming  the  form  of.  a  long 
cylindrical  tube.  This  tube  is  then  put  into  a  hollow  fire, 
heated  by  a  blast,  and  when  the  iron  is  upon  the  point  of  fusion 
it  is  to  be  drawn  out  of  the  furnace  by  means  of  a  chain 
attached  to  a  draw  bench,  and  passed  through  a  pair  of  dies 
of  the  size  required,  by  which  means  the  edges  of  the  iron  will 
become  welded  together.  The  apparatus  which  I  employ 
for  this  purpose  is  shown  at  fig.  6,  which  is  a  side  view  of 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


the  furnace  A,  and  of  the  draw  bench  B,  with  its  spur  wheel 
C,  which  may  be  put  in  operation  by  a  hand  winch,  or  by 
attaching  its  axle  to  the  moving  part  of  a  steam  engine.  D 
is  a  screw  press,  in  which  the  dies  are  placed  for  swaging 
and  uniting  the  edges  of  the  iron  tube  E  as  it  passes  through. 
A  front  view  of  this  screw  press  is  shown  at  fig.  7,  and  one 


FIG.  G. 

of  the  dies  removed  from  the  press  is  shown  at  fig.  8.  The 
iron  tube  E,  having  been  heated  to  the  point  of  fusion  in  the 
furnace  A,  is  drawn  out  by  the  chain  of  the  draw  bench,  and 
the  screw  of  the  press  D  being  turned  so  as  to  bring  the  dies 
to  their  proper  point  of  bearing,  the  two  edges  of  the  iron 
become  pressed  together,  and  a  perfect  welding  of  the  tube 
is  effected.  The  screw  clamp  or  other  fastening  F,  by  which 
the  end  of  the  tube  is  held  and  attached  to  the  chain,  is  now 
opened,  and  the  tube  removed.  The  reverse  side  of  the  tube 


IRON   AND   STEEL  TUBES.  7 

is  then  grasped  by  it,  and  that  part  which  has  not  been 
welded  is  introduced  into  the  furnace,  and  after  being  heated 
is  drawn  through  tHe  dies  and  welded  in  the  manner  above 
described.  The  process  of  welding  these  tubes  may  be  per- 
formed without  the  screw  press  and  dies  above  described. 
A  pair  of  pincers,  as  shown  at  fig.  9,  may  be  employed 
instead,  having  a  hole  for  the  tube  to  pass  through  similar 
to  the  dies.  One  arm  and  chap  of  these  pincers  is  shown  in 
section  at  the  lower  part  of  fig.  9,  for  the  purpose  of  exhibit- 
ing the  conical  figure  of  the  hole  which  the  tube  E  is  to  pass 
through  as  it  is  drawn  out  of  the  furnace  by  the  chain  of 
the  draw  bench.  A  workman  brings  the  pincers  against  the 


FIG.  9.  FIG.  8. 

standard  at  a  steadying  place,  and  as  the  tube  passes  through 
the  hole  of  the  pincers  the  welding  of  the  edges  of  the  iron 
is  effected." 

"  I  have  thus  described  the  modes  which  I  have  employed 
and  found  fully  to  answer  the  purpose  in  welding  tubes  of 
iron,  but  I  do  not  confine  myself  to  the  employment  of  this 
precise  construction  of  apparatus,  as  several  variations  may 
be  made  without  deviating  from  the  principles  of  my  inven- 
tion, which  is  to  heat  the  previously  proposed  tubes  of  iron 
to  a  welding  heat — that  is,  nearly  to  the  point  of  fusion — 
and  then,  after  withdrawing  them  from  the  fire,  to  pass  them 
between  dies,  or  through  holes,  by  which  the  edges  of  the 
heated  iron  may  be  pressed  together  and  the  joint  firmly 
welded.  The  advantages  of  this  tube  compared  with  those 
made  in  the  ordinary  way  are  these :  The  iron  is  considerably 
improved  by  the  operation  of  the  hollow  fire,  the  heat  being 
generally  diffused.  The  length  of  the  pieces  of  tube  thus 
made  is  likewise  a  great  advantage,  as  by  these  means  they 
may  be  made  from  2  ft,  to  8  ft.  long  in  one  piece,  whereas 


8  THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 

by  the  old  modes  the  lengths  of  tubes  cannot  exceed  4  ft. 
without  considerable  difficulty,  and,  consequently,  an  in- 
creased expense.  These  tubes  are  likewise  capable  of 
resisting  greater  pressure  from  the  uniformity  of  the  heat 
throughout  at  which  they  have  been  welded ;  and,  lastly, 
both  their  internal  and  external  surfaces  are  rendered 
smooth,  and  greatly  resembling  drawn  lead  pipes." 

The  introduction  of  Whitehouse's  invention  at  once 
greatly  reduced  the  selling  price  of  gas  pipes.  It  is  stated 
that  the  sum  actually  paid  for  welding  a  gas  tube  under  the 
old  gun-barrel  principle  was  equal  to  the  amount  at  which 
the  complete  and  vastly  superior  tube  was  sold  when  made 
under  the  new  process.  Such  process  as  described  in  White- 
house's  specification,  and  which  we  have  inserted  in  full, 
may  be  seen  in  operation  in  any  of  the  tube  works  in  and 
around  Birmingham,  and  elsewhere.  Whitehouse,  who  is 
described  as  a  whitesmith,  assigned  his  patent  to  James 
Russell,  of  Wednesbury,  on  the  condition  that  he  was  to  be 
found  employment  by  the  said  James  Russell,  and  be  paid 
an  annuity  of  £50  during  the  term  of  the  patent.  The 
expense  of  obtaining  the  letters  patent  (which  in  those  days 
amounted  to  about  £125)  was  borne  by  James  Russell. 

With  an  invention  of  such  importance  it  is  not  surprising 
to  find  that  the  patent  granted  thereon  became  the  subject 
of  much  litigation,  but  it  was  held  in  the  law  courts  that 
the  method  of  welding  tubes  by  circumferential  pressure 
invented  by  Whitehouse  was  perfectly  good  subject  matter 
for  letters  patent,  which  were  accordingly  upheld. 

As  the  end  of  the  fourteen  years'  term  of  the  patent 
approached,  the  assignee  considered  that,  owing  to  the 
vexatious  law  suits  in  which  he  had  been  involved,  the 
amount  of  profit  received  was  disproportionate  to  the  merit 
of  the  invention.  He  was  successful  in  obtaining  an  exten- 
sion of  the  patent  for  a  period  of  six  years  on  the  condition 
that  he  paid  a  royalty  of  £600  per  annum  to  Cornelius 
Whitehouse,  the  inventor,  during  such  extended  period. 
The  extended  period  expired,  rendering  the  invention  open 
to  all  makers  and  users,  on  February  26th,  1 845. 


IRON   AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


CHAPTER  II. 
.    STEAM  TUBES  AND  PATENTS  RELATING  THERETO. 

THE  production  of  steam  tubes  by  the  welding  of  the  over- 
lapping edges  of  wrought-iron  skelps,  in  machines  having 
rqlls  in  conjunction  with  a  stationary  mandrel,  appears  a 
very  simple  operation  in  a  well-organised  tube  works,  but 
the  process  was  only  established  after  much  costly  experi- 
menting. The  production  of  gas  pipes  or  tubes  by  the 
Whitehouse  process,  described  in  our  previous  chapter,  had 
been  well  established  when  the  success  of  George  Stephen- 
son's  "  Rocket,"  in  1829,  created  a  demand  for  a  larger  and 
stronger  form  of  tube  than  could  be  produced  by  butt 
welding. 

An  Englishman,  Martin  Jones,  appears  to  have  been  one 
of  the  earliest  of  the  workers  who  devoted  themselves  to 
the  production  of  steam  tubes  in  large  quantities,  but  his 
labours,  unlike  the  case  of  Cornelius  Whitehouse  with  the 
butt-welding  process,  brought  him  nothing  but  disappoint- 
ment and  ruin.  In  a  little  book  on  "  Wednesbury  Workshops," 
by  Mr.  T.  W.  Hackwood,  we  read  that  Martin  Jones,  when 
in  France,  became  connected  with  experiments  in  the  pro- 
duction of  machines  for  rolling  solid  wrought-iron  cannon 
shot.  The  experiments  were  unsuccessful,  but,  as  a  result  of 
the  experience  gained  in  conducting  them,  Jones  conceived 
the  idea  of  rolling  wrought-iron  tubes.  He  returned  to 
England,  and  took  part  in  some  works  at  Birmingham,  and 
after  much  experimenting,  .  at  his  own  cost,  produced 
machines  which,  although  far  from  perfect,  contained  the 
elements  of  eventual  success.  But  having  by  this  time 
exhausted  his  own  and  his  wife's  fortune,  and  being  much 
pressed  by  his  creditors,  Jones  placed  his  invention  in  the 
hands  of  a  friend  and  neighbour,  who  lost  no  time  in 
appropriating  the  matter  entirely  to  himself,  continued  the 
experiments,  and  eventually  obtained  letters  patent  in  his 
own  name.  This  patentee  and  pirate  of  Jones's  invention 
made  over  his  patent  rights  to  'two  Birmingham  men  of 


10  THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 

large  means — Ledsam  and  Bowers — and  is  said  to  have 
received  from  them  royalties  amounting  to  £30,000  per 
annum.  We  gather,  however,  that  he  was  not  particularly 
happy,  for  we  read  of  his  despatching  himself  by  means  of  a 
razor,  on  a  certain  bright  summer's  morning. 

At  about  the  same  time,  the  Messrs.  Russell,  of  Wednes- 
bury,  had  succeeded  in  making  wrought- iron  tubes  with  two 
rollers  instead  of  with  the  four  employed  by  Ledsam  and 
Bowers,  but  the  latter  firm  declared  the  Russell  process  to 
be  an  infringement  of  their  patent.  After  much  litigation, 
involving,  it  is  recorded,  an  expenditure  of  £70,000,  judgment 
was  given  in  favour  of  the  Russells,  who  were  thus  allowed 
to  pursue  their  process  of  manufacture. 

Adverting  again  to  the  published  patent  specifications,  we 
find  that  on  March  27th,  1840,  Richard  Prosser,  of  Birming- 
ham, applied  for  letters  patent  for  "Certain  improvements 
in  machinery  or  apparatus  for  manufacturing  pipes."  The 
official  number  of  his  specification  is  8454,  of  1840.  The 
inventor  says,  in  this  specification  :  "  My  improvements 
relate  to  that  kind  of  machinery  or  apparatus  for  manu- 
facturing pipes  of  metal  which  operates  by  means  of  a  pair 
of  revolving  rollers — that  is,  two  such  rollers  having 
concave  grooves  around  their  circumferences,  and  the  said 
groove  around  one  roller  corresponding  to  that  around  the 
other  roller."  We  further  read  that  "the  mode  of  manu- 
facturing pipes  of  metal  by  rolling  between  grooved  rolls 
was,  as  regards  lead  pipes,'  invented  by  Mr.  Wilkinson  in 
1790,  and  as  regards  pipes  which  are  made  from  wrought- 
iron  strip  by  Henry  Osborn,  in  1817.  But  whereas  by 
such  machinery  or  apparatus  only  one  pair  of  revolving 
grooved  rollers  is  used,  one  disposed  above  the  other,  to  roll 
the  metal  between  them,  it  follows  that  the  compression 
which  can  be  thereby  exerted  upon  the  metal  of  the  pipe  at 
each  time  of  rolling  it  must  be  chiefly  operative  at  the 
upper  and  lower  sides  only." 

The  skelps,  after  heating  in  a  reverberatory  or  other 
furnace,  are  passed  through  a  machine,  having  four  grooved 
disc  rollers  driven  at  a  uniform  speed.  The  central  space 
between  the  rolls  regulates  the  external  diameter  of  the 
tube,  and  the  mandrel  the  internal  diameter.  Tubes  of 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES.  11 

other  than  circular  form  may  be  produced  by  suitably 
shaping  the  mandrel  and  the  grooves  in  the  rolls.  The 
action  of  the  machine  is  very  rapid,  only  two  seconds  of 
time  being  required  for  the  passage  through  and  welding 
of  each  tube. 

On  July  24th,  1844,  a  specification,  No.  10272,  was  filed  by 
John  James  Russell  and  Thomas  Henry  Russell,  describing 
the  welding  of  a  lap-jointed  tube  in  a  machine  having  a 
grooved  travelling  bed  for  the  reception  of  the  skelp,  which 
it  moves  in  alternate  directions  beneath  a  grooved  welding 
roller,  the  internal  support  being  provided  by  a  mandrel. 
The  to-and-fro  movement  of  the  bed  or  carriage  is  effected 
by  means  of  a  coarse  pitched  screw,  wrhich  is  driven  by 
reversing  gear. 

In  specification  No.  9287,  of  1842,  in  the  names  of  Thomas 
Henry  Russell  and  Cornelius  Whitehouse,  there  is  described 
a  method  of  providing  an  internal  support  to  tubes  welded 
by  drawing  through  dies.  The  applicants  state  that  their 
invention  "  relates  to  improvements  in  welding  the  joints  or  - 
seams  of  tubes  when  made  by  external  pressure,  by  passing 
the  iron  in  a  wrelding  state  between  dies  or  through  holes ;  ' 
and  the  improvements  consist  of  a  means  of  employing 
internal  support,  and  in  such  a  manner  that  the  instrument 
which  gives  the  internal  support  being  introduced  into  a 
partly  formed  tube  through  the  dies  or  holes  used,  by  which 
the  requisite  external  pressure  is  obtained  ;  and  when  the 
weld  is  completed,  the  instrument  used  for  giving  external 
support,  owing  to  its  being  of  small  diameter  when  compared 
with  the  diameter  of  the  finished  tube,  may  readily  be  with- 
drawn by  causing  the  welded  tube  to  be  pressed  into  a 
cylindrical  form."  Referring  to  the  illustrations,  fig.  10,  the 
iron  skelp  of  the  section  shown  at  A  is  drawn  through  the 
tongs  B  to  a  shape  such  as  shown  at  C.  A  hollow  bar  or 
tube  D  is  then  placed  in  the  interior  of  the  skelp  to  form  the 
internal  support.  The  inventors  state  that  their  invention 
is  "particularly  applicable  when  thin  welded  iron  tubes  are 
desired,  such  as  for  the  tubular  flues  of  locomotive  or  similar 
boilers,  for  which  purpose  we  are  now  using  iron  of  No.  14 
of  the  wire  gauge,  and  we  are  now  making  such  tubes  from 
1 J  in.  to  2  in.  diameter,  but  those  dimensions  may  be  varied." 


12 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


There  are  a  large  number  of  specifications  relating  to  the 
production  of  wrought-iron  tubes  to  which  we  cannot  refer 


Fio.   10. 


in  detail,  but  of  which  a  list  will  be  subsequently  compiled 
for  reference. 

Before  passing  from  wrought-iron  welded  tubing  we  may 
note  the  improvements  relating  to  the  bevelling  of  the  edges 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


13 


of  the  tube  strip  for  lap-welded  tubes  described  by  David 
Muckley,  of  Wednesbury,  in  his  specification  No.  3706,  of 
1891.  In  his  specification  this  inventor  states:  "In  the 
manufacture  of  lap-welded  tubes  according  to  the  present 
mode  of  manufacture  the  two  edges  of  the  plates  or  strips 


FIG.  11. 


of  metal  are  bevelled  upon  a  bevelling  table  or  what  is 
the  equivalent  of  a  planing  machine,  and  this  forms  a  distinct 
and  separate  part  of  the  process  of  making  tubes.  I  avoid 
the  necessity  of  so  bevelling  the  edges  by  a  cutting  tool,  and 
save  the  metal  that  would  thus  be  cut  away.  That  is  to 


FIG.  12. 

say,  that  by  my  mode  I  make  a  12  in.  strip  equal  to,  say, 
12|in.  strip,  or,  on  the  other  hand,  I  may  economise  this 
metal  in  adding  to  the  length  of  the  strip,  thus  effecting  a 
considerable  percentage  of  saving  in  the  metal  as  well  as 
the  time  taken  up  by  the  separate  machine  for  bevelling 
the  strips."  The  apparatus  employed  by  Muckley  is  shown 


14 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


in  the  adjoining  figs.  11  to  16  inclusive.  In  front  of  the 
furnace  A  he  places  a  pair  of  rolls,  one  of  which  is  provided 
with  bevelled  edges,  or  one  edge  of  each  roll  being  bevelled. 
From  the  rolls  the  hot  strip  is  drawn  through  the  skelp 


FIG.  13. 


FIG.  14. 


die  C,  or  instead  of  such  die  the  rolls  E,  fig.  14,  may  be 
employed.  This  patent  was  allowed  to  lapse  in  the  year  1900. 
We  may  also  note  the  specification  of  Henry  Howard, 
No.  5641,  of  1890,  describing  an  invention  having  for  its 
objectjto  expedite  and  simplify  the  welding  process,  whether 


FIG.  15. 


Flo.  16. 


butt  or  lap.  For  this  purpose  the  welding  process  was  made 
to  immediately  follow  the  skelp-forming  process  in  the 
manner  illustrated  at  figs.  17,  18,  and  19.  Between  the  skelp 
former  B,  adjoining  the  furnace  A,  fig.  17,  and  the  welding 
bell  or  tongs  C,  is  a  blow-pipe  apparatus  D  for  delivering  a 


IRON   AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


15 


sheet  of  flame  upon  the  open  imjointed  edges  of  the  skelp, 
for  raising  them  to  a  welding  heat.     At  fig.  IS  the  blow-pipe 


FIG.  17. 


FIG.  IS. 


FIG.  19. 


apparatus  is  displaced  by  the  carbon  rod  H,  constituting  one 
of  the  electrodes  of  a  voltaic  arc,    the    edges  of  the  skelp 


16  THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 

forming  the  other  electrode.  At  fig.  19  is  represented  the 
voltaic  arc  arrangement  in  combination  with  rolls  employed 
for  shaping  the  skelp,  welding  its  edges,  and  perfecting  the 
welded  tube.  The  patent  granted  on  this  application  has 
been  allowed  to  lapse  through  the  non-payment  of  renewal 
fees. 


CHAPTER  III. 

OPEN  OR  CLOSE  JOINTED  TUBES. 

THE  tubes  employed  in  the  construction  of  bedsteads  and 
for  other  similar  purposes  not  having  to  '  resist  either  an 
external  or  internal  liquid  or  gaseous  pressure,  as  in  the  case 
of  steam,  water,  and  gas  pipes,  do  not  require  the  edges  of  the 
strip  from  which  they  are  formed  securely  welding  together, 
but  such  edges  may  be  simply  butted,  making  what  is 
termed  an  open  or  close  jointed  tube. 

The  accompanying  illustrations,  figs.  21,  22,  and  23,  are 
from  the  specification  No.  6262,  of  1886,  of  Frederick  Huggins, 
of  the  Britannia  Tube  Works,  Birmingham,  for  "  New  or 
improved  machinery  for  the  manufacture  of  iron  and  steel 
tubes."  The  inventor  states  that  his  machinery  is  suitable 
for  the  manufacture  of  iron  and  steel  tubes,  whether  welded 
or  open  or  close  jointed.  It  consists  essentially  of  two  pairs 
of  rolls  and  a  die  having  a  trumpet-shaped  axial  opening 
in  it.  The  said  pairs  of  rolls  turn  on  horizontal  shafts 
working  in  bearings  on  the  frame  of  the  machine.  The 
rolls  at  the  front  of  the  machine — that  is,  at  that  part  at 
which  enters  the  strip  of  iron  or  steel  from  which  the  tube 
is  to  be  made — are  of  a  shape  suited  to  bend  the  strip  passed 
between  them  into  a  trough  shape — that  is,  semi-tubular,  or 
nearly  semi-tubular — one  of  the  said  rolls  having  a  groove 
semi-circular  in  cross-section,  and  the  other  having  a  pro- 
jection or  flange  semi-circular  in  cross-section,  the  said 
flange  on  one  roll  working  in  the  groove  of  the  other.  The 
second  pair  of  rolls  consist  of  two  similar  rolls — that  is, 
rolls  each  of  which  has  in  it  a  groove  semi-circular  in  cross- 
section,  the  opposed  grooves  having  the  same  radius  as  the 


IRON  AND    STEEL  TUBES. 


17 


finished  tube.  Between  the  first  and  second  pair  of  rolls  the 
die,  having  a  trumpet-shaped  axial  hole  in  it,  is  situated, 
the  said  die  being  fixed  close  to,  but  without  touching,  the 


FIG.  21. 


first   pair  of  rolls.     The   wide  end   or  mouth   of  the  bell- 
shaped  opening  is  turned  towards  the  first  pair   of  rolls. 

3ST 


18 


THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 


The  rolls  are  geared  together  with  ordinary   gearing  and 
are  driven  by  steam  or  other  power. 

The  action  of  the  machinery  is  as  follows  : — 
The  machine  is  situated  near  the  furnace  in  which  the 
flat  strips  of  iron  or  steel  to  be  made  into  tubes  are  heated. 
The  end  of  a  heated  strip  marked  A,  in  fig.  21,  is  taken  hold 
of  by  the  workman  by  means  of  a  pair  of  tongs,  and  intro- 
duced between  the  first  pair  of  rolls  B  C.  The  strip  A, 
seized  by  the  rolls  B  C,  passes  rapidly  between  them  and  is 
bent  into  a  semi-tubular  form.  Emerging  from  the  first 
pair  of  rolls  B  C,  the  trough-like  strip  indicated  by  dotted 
lines  in  fig.  21  is  forced  by  the  rolls  BC  through  the 
trumpet-shaped  axial  opening  of  the  die  D,  the  axis  of  the 


FIG.  22. 


FIG.  23. 


said  opening  being  in  a  line  with  the  axis  of  the  "  eye  "  of 
the  rolls  B  C.  The  trough-shaped  heated  strip  of  iron  or 
steel  in  passing  through  the  die  B  is  bent  into  a  tubular 
form,  and  on  leaving  the  said  die  passes  between  the  second 
pair  of  rolls  E  F,  the  eye  of  which  is  in  the  same  line  as  the 
axis  of  the  trumpet-shaped  opening  in  the  die  D  and  the 
eye  of  the  first  pair  of  rolls  B  C.  By  the  action  of  the 
second  pair  of  rolls  the  drawing  of  the  tube  through  the  die 
is  completed,  and  the  surface  of  the  tube  is  improved.  The 
finished  tube  passing  from  the  rolls  is  marked  G. 

The  heated  strips  of  iron  or  steel  may  be  made  by  this 
.machinery,   the   inventor   states,    into   welded   butt-jointed 


IRON   AND    STEEL   TUBES.  19 

tubes,  or  into  unwelded  tubes,  commonly  called  open-jointed 
tubes  or  close-jointed  tubes. 

When  butt-welded  tubes  are  to  be  made,  the  edges  of  the 
strip  are  presented  face  to  face,  and  the  width  of  the  strip 
is  such  that  when  it  passes  through  the  die  D  the  edges  are 
pressed  forcibly  together  and  welded. 

In  making  welded  tubes  the  strips  are  raised  to  a  welding 
heat,  and  passed  through  the  machine  quickly.  When 
unwelded  tubes  are  to  be  made,  the  strips  are  heated  only 
to  bright  redness,  and  need  not  be  passed  so  rapidly  through 
the  machine. 

In  1894,  F.  R.  Broughton,  of  Hands  worth,  Birmingham, 
in  conjunction  with  J.  Fieldhouse,  filed  a  specification,  No. 
8563,  of  1894,  in  which  they  describe  a  method  of  forming 
closed-jointed  tubes  entirely  by  rolling  operations,  dispensing 
with  the  use  of  an  intermediate  die.  Their  patent  is  in 
force.  A  list  of  other  patents  relating  to  this  class  of  tubing 
will  be  found  in  the  appendix. 

THE  MANUFACTURE  OF  TUBES  FROM  COILED  STRIPS. 

As  we  have  already  seen,  the  early  process  of  gun-barrel 
making  consisted  in  the  welding  of  a  tubular  skelp,  but  it 
was  well  known  many  years  ago  that  a  stronger  barrel 
could  be  produced,  and  many  were  made,  by  winding  a 
ribbon  or  narrow  strip  of  iron  on  a  mandrel  in  a  spiral 
direction  and  welding  the  edges  together. 

In  1857,  Edgar  Brooks,  of  Birmingham,  filed  a  specifi- 
cation, No.  1603,  for  a  "  New  and  improved  manufacture  of 
gun  barrels  and  other  articles  of  like  manufacture."  The 
inventor  says  :  "  I  take  a  rod  of  iron,  and  coil  it  in  a  helical 
direction  upon  a  cylindrical  rod  or  mandrel,  the  coil  of  the 
helix  being  brought  as  close  as  possible  into  contact.  The 
said  coil  is  then  submitted  to  the  compressing  or  percussive 
action  of  a  pair  of  dies,  each  of  which  is  nearly  a  hollow 
semi-cylinder.  The  coil  is  compressed  or  hammered  between 
the  said  dies  until  it  is  welded  into  a  compact  hollow 
cylinder.  In  order  to  secure  the  lateral  welding  of  the 
coils  together,  the  interior  of  each  die  is  provided  with  a 
series  of  projecting  ribs,  having  such  a  figure  that  when  the 


20 


THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 


two  dies  are  brought  together  they  form  a  hollow  cylinder, 
on  the  interior  of  which  is  a  helical  coil  of  the  same  pitch 


FIG.  24. 

as  the  coil  to  be  welded.  The  heated  coil  is  so  placed 
between  the  dies  that  the  projecting  ribs  in  the  said  dies 
press  when  the  dies  close  upon  the  middle  or  edges  of  each 

FIG.  25. 


Q 


FIG.  26. 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


21 


coil  of  the  iron  helix.  By  pressure  upon  the  middle  of  the 
coils  the  said  coils  are  made  to  spread  laterally,  and  press 
against  each  other  with  great  force.  By  pressure  upon  the 
edges  of  the  coils  nearly  the  same  effect  is  produced." 

The  tubing  forming  the  framing  of  the  bicycle  illustrated 
at  fig.  24  is  from  the  specification  of  William  Hillman,  of 
the  Premier  Cycle  Works,  Coventry,  No.  82,  of  1892.  The 
invention,  it  is  stated,  consists  in  the  employment  in  the 
construction  of  the  framing  and  other  parts  of  a  cycle  of 
tubing  formed  of  sheet  steel,  preferably  of  the  character 
known  as  crucible  cast  steel,  it  being  essential  that  the 
steel  employed  should  be  of  high  quality.  The  tubing  is 
form  3d  by  coiling  a  length  of  such  sheet  metal,  of  the 
desired  width,  around  a  mandrel  in  such  a  manner  as  to 

FIG.  27. 


obtain  at  least  two  layers  of  metal  all  along  the  tube.  The 
layers  are  jointed  by  soldering  or  brazing  at  the  ends ;  or, 
if  desired,  at  intervals,  or  all  along  the  length  of  the  tube. 
This  patent  is  still  in  force. 

LOCK-JOINTED  AND  BRAZED  OR  SOLDERED  TUBES. 

With  lock-jointed  tubing  the  edges  of  the  strip  are  locked 
or  caused  to  engage  the  one  with  the  other,  either  on  the 
interior  or  exterior  of  the  tube.  They  are  usually  produced 
by  rolling  processes,  but  in  the  specification,  No.  1415,  of 
1873,  an  American,  S.  R.  Wilmot,  describes  the  making  of 
such  tubes  by  a  drawing  process,  as  illustrated  by  figs.  25  to 


22 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


29,  inclusive.     The  strip  of  metal  (such  as  brass,  copper,  or 
steel)  coiled  or  wound  on  the  reel  A,  figs.  25  and  26,  is  drawn 


FIG.  30. 


Fro.  31. 


through  the  former  B  and  die  C,  which  are  suitably  shaped 
to  bend  •  the  flat  strip  D  through  the  varying  forms  shown 
at  fig.  29  to  make  the  complete  tube  E. 


IRON    AND    STEEL   TUBES. 


23 


The  illustrations,  figs.  30,  31,  and  32  show  the  method  o. 
interlocking  the  edges,  as  set  forth  in  the  specification  of 
J.  Gaskell  and  G.  Exton,  of  Chippenham,  No.  5117,  of  1883. 
This  patent  became  void  in  1888. 

The  illustrations  at  fig.  33  are  from  the  specification,  No. 
19230,  of  1891,  of  J.  Earle  and  G.  Bourne,  of  Birmingham. 
The  patent  granted  011  this  application  is  now  void  through 
non-payment  of  renewal  fee.  The  tubes  shown  are  not,  as 


or  G> 


FJO.  33. 

will  be  observed,  lock-jointed,  but  the  edges  are  turned 
inwards,  and  jointed  by  hard  soldering.  In  the  form  shown 
at  A,  a  strip  of  metal  B  is  employed  to  give  greater  strength, 
such  strip  extending  longitudinally  throughout  the  centre 
of  the  tube.  In  the  form  at  C  the  strip  is  of  such  width  as 
to  permit  of  both  edges  extending  across  the  tube,  as  shown, 
whilst  at  D  only  one  of  the  edges  extends  diametrically 
across  the  interior  of  the  tube. 


24  THE   MANUFACTURE  OF 


CHAPTER   IV. 

SEAMLESS  STEEL  TUBES. 

IN  the  initial  stages  of  the  application  of  a  new  material 
to  the  production  of  old  or  known  articles,  the  method  of 
manufacture  adopted  is  usually  on  similar  lines  to  the 
method  or  processes  by  which  the  old  material  is  worked 
into  the  required  form.  From  such  initial  stage  we  find  a 
constant  development  or  advance,  as  a  result  of  the  experi- 
ments, the  research  and  the  ingenuity  of  the  various  minds 
directed  to  the  subject.  Thus  the  manufacture  of  seamless 
steel  tubing,  as  first  suggested  or  adopted,  comprised  no  new 
process  or  method  of  treatment,  but  was  merely  an  applica- 
tion of  the  old  or  known  appliances  for  dealing  with  the  new 
material. 

The  ductility  or  flowing  property  possessed  by  steel  blooms 
or  billets,  as  produced  by  the  modern  methods  of  steel  manu- 
facture on  a  large  scale  which  have  given  birth  to  what  has 
been  termed  the  "Age  of  Steel,"  suggested  to  tube  makers 
that  such  blooms  or  billets  could  be  treated  in  the  same 
manner  as  copper,  brass  and  other  metals.  Hence  we  find 
several  patent  specifications  setting  forth  the  production  of 
tubes  from  steel  by  processes  similar  to  those  employed  in 
the  manufacture  of  brass  and  like  tubes. 

In  his  specification,  No.  472,  of  1854,  J.  D.  M.  Stirling,  of 
Birmingham,  states  that  "  Heretofore  in  the  manufacture  of 
tubes  and  cylinders  of  steel  it  has  been  usual  to  employ 
sheets  of  steel  bent  into  the  size  and  form  desired,  and  then 
to  join  the  edges  by  welding  or  brazing.  Now,  my  invention 
consists  of  casting  steel  into  tubular  or  hollow  cylindrical 
forms,  and  then  extending  them  in  diameter  or  length,  or 
both,  by  hammering,  by  drawing,  or  rolling,  or  by  combining 
such  processes.  I  cause  cylindrical  or  tubular  forms,  of  a 
length  and  diameter  according  to  the  length  and  diameter 
of  tube  or  cylinder  intended,  to  be  cast  of  cast  steel  in  a  like 
manner  to  what  has  heretofore  been  practised  when  making 
tubes  of  copper  or  of  brass,  or  solid  ingots  of  cast  steel,  and 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


25 


it  is  found  preferable  to  allow  such  steel  castings  to  cool  first; 
they  are  afterwards  heated  to  the  usual  temperature  at  which 
cast  steel  is  hammered,  and  I  prefer  tilting  or  hammering 
all  such  cylindrical  or  tubular  forms  previous  to  drawing 


FIG.  34. 

through  plates  or  extending  by  means  of  rolling."  The 
inventor  proceeds  to  state  that  the  tubes  are  heated  and 
annealed  as  may  be  necessary,  and  are  drawn  to  the  required 
size  with  mandrels  and  dies  such  as  are  used  for  drawing 
brass  tubes. 

SEAMLESS  TUBES  DIRECT  FROM  MOLTEN  OR  PLASTIC  METAL. 

Before  referring  to  specifications  setting  forth  processes 
by  which  seamless  steel  tubes  for  cycle  construction  and 
other  purposes  are  now  produced,  we  may  here  note  the 
specification  No.  846,  of  1882,  of  R.  Elliott,  of  Newcastle- 
on-Tyne,  setting  forth  a  method  of  producing  tubes  with  the 
grain  or  fibre  of  the  metal  in  a  helical  direction.  The  tubes 
are  made  direct  from  the  liquid  or  plastic  metal  by  a  process 
similar  to  that  employed  for  squirting  lead  pipes.  The 
adjoining  figs.  34  and  35  are  from  those  accompanying  the 
specification.  Referring  to  fig.  34,  the  metal,  in  a  molten  or 
plastic  condition,  is  placed  in  the  vessel  A,  having  at  one 


26 


THE   MANUFACTURE    OF 


end  a  head  piece  B,  carrying  a  hollow  die  of  steel  or  other 
hard  metal,  in  which  is  formed  grooves  in  a  helical  or  screw- 
like  direction.  Projecting  into  this  die  is  a  bar  or  core  C, 
secured  to  the  lower  end  of  the  vessel  A.  On  pressure  being 


FIG.  35. 


applied  to  the  metal  in  the  vessel  A,  by  means  of  rams 
working  in  the  hydraulic  cylinders  D,  such  rams  being 
connected  by  rods  to  the  crosshead  E  as  illustrated,  the  said 
metal  is  forced  from  the  vessel  A  through  the  annular  space 
between  the  rod  C  and  the  die,  and  is  caused  by  the  grooves 


IRON   AND    STEEL  TUBES.  27 

in  the  die  to  take  a  helical  or  screw-like  course  there  through; 
it  will  thus  issue  from  the  hollow  head  piece  B  as  a  tube 
with  a  helical  or  twisted  fibre.  The  die  may  be  caused  to 
rotate  in  the  manner  illustrated  at  fig.  35. 

A  process  of  making  tubes  of  iron,  or  steel,  or  other  metal 
or  alloys,  by  pouring  or  passing  a  tubular  stream  of  molten 
metal  in  contact  with  continuously  moving  chilling  surfaces, 
is  described  in  the  specification  No.  19153,  of  1890,  of 
Edwin  Norton  and  Edmund  Adcock,  of  Illinois  and  Chicago 
respectively.  The  patent  became  void  in  1895. 

THE  APPLICATION  OF  PUNCHING   OR  EXTENDING   PROCESSES 
FOR  PRODUCING  STEEL  TUBES  FROM  Discs  OR  BLANKS. 

In  his  specification  No.  5265,  of  1885,  W.  H.  Brown,  of 
New  York,  states :  "  In  the  manufacture  of  drawn-steel 
cylinders  and  tubes  from  discs  of  steel,  as  heretofore 
practised,  the  entire  process  has  been  performed  with  the 
metal  in  a  cold  state.  This  process  is  expensive,  owing  to 
the  enormous  power  required  for  working  the  metal  in  the 
earlier  of  the  numerous  successive  drawing  operations 
required  when  the  thickness  of  the  metal  is  great,  and  the 
calibre  of  the  cylindrical  cup-formed  body  being  operated 
upon  is  large."  The  invention  of  Brown  is  said  to  consist  in 
performing  the  various  operations  partly  while  the  steel  is 
hot  and  partly  while  cold — that  is  to  say,  performing  the 
earlier  stages  of  the  manufacture  by  which  the  disc  is 
brought  to  the  cylindrical  form  while  the  steel  is  hot,  and 
performing  the  latter  stages  by  which  the  steel  is  com- 
pressed, condensed,  solidated  and  tempered  while  it  is  in  the 
cold  state.  Referring  to  fig.  36,  A  is  a  sectional  view  of  the 
disc  from  which  a  cylinder  is  formed,  whilst  B,  C,  D  and  E 
are  similar  views  illustrating  the  different  forms  assumed  by 
the  disc  during  its  working  in  a  hot  state.  F,  G,  and  H  are 
views  illustrating  the  means  employed  to  effect  the 
successive  changes  of  form.  The  closed  end  left  in  the 
cylinder  is  cut  oft7  at  the  termination  of  the  hot  folding 
operation,  and  the  tube  is  finished  to  the  required  size  by  a 
cold  drawing  with  die  and  triblet,  or  mandrel.  This  patent 
became  void  in  1891. 


28 


THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 


In  the  specification  No.  11095,  of  1891,  of  J.  S.  Taylor  and 
S.  W.  Challen,  of  Birmingham,  there  is  set  forth  a  series  of 
operations  by  which  a  tube  is  formed  from  a  disc  or  blank 
of  steel  by  subjecting  the  metal  when  in  a  cold  state  to  a 


u 


A 

0 


H 


FIG. 


series  of  cupping  operations,  whereby  the  thickness  of  the 
original  disc  or  sheet  is  maintained  approximately  the  same 
throughout  such  operations,  and  afterwards  subjecting  the 
long  cup  thus  produced  to  cold-drawing  operations  to  further 
lengthen,  reduce  in  thickness,  and  polish  the  tube.  The 


IRON   AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


29 


blank  or  disc  is  cut  from  a  cold  steel  sheet,  and  extended  in 
the  manner  illustrated  by  the  sections  A,  B,  C,  D,  E,  F,  G,  H, 
and  J,  fig.  37,  and  is  then  transferred  to  the  draw  benches, 


Jf 

m 


FIG.  37. 


and  drawn  out  and  finished  to  the  desired  diameter  and 
length  by  means  of  die  plates  such  as  K,  in  conjunction 
with  mandrels,  having  conical  ends  to  permit  of  varying 
thicknesses  of  tube  being  produced,  adjustment  of  the 
mandrel  being  effected  by  a  screw  and  nut'at  its  outer  end. 


30 


THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 


To  facilitate  the  operation  of  drawing  the  tube  or  case,  the 
solid  end  is  closed  in  or  necked  as  at  L,  fig.  38,  after  the 
extending  operation,  to  permit  of  a  firm  grip  or  hold  being 


M 


FIG.  38. 


obtained  by  the  tongs  or  like  appliances  employed  for 
drawing  the  tube  through  the  die.  The  series  of  operations 
through  which  the  sheet  passes  is  shown  at  M,  fig.  38.  N  is 


IRON  AND    STEEL  TUBES. 


31 

This 


a  detail  of  the  first  stage  of  the  cupping  process, 
patent  is  in  force. 

Fig.  39  is  from  the  specification  No.  20364,  of  1891,  of  C. 
T.  Cayley  and  R.  S.  Courtnaan,  of  London,  describing  an 
invention  relating  to  the  manufacture  of  cylinders  or  bottles 
for  containing  oxygen  and  other  gas  under  pressure.  The 


L 


L 


FIG.  39. 


bottles  are  produced  from  a  solid  block  of  steel,  which  is 
worked  into  a  cup-shaped  blank  by  punching  while  in  a 
mould,  then  made  into  a  tubular  form  by  hot  drawing,  and 
finished  by  cold  drawing  and  closing  of  the  open  end.  This 
patent  became  void  in  the  year  1898. 


32  THE   MANUFACTURE  OF 


CHAPTER   V. 

THE  MANNKSMANN  PROCESS. 

THE  first  patent  application  made  on  behalf  of  the  German 
manufacturers,  Reinhard  Mannesmann  and  Max  Mannes- 
marm,  is  dated  January  27th,  1885,  and  the  complete 
specification  filed  therewith  is  No.  1167  of  that  year.  The 
title  of  the  specification  is  given  as  "  Improvements  in 
rolling  metal,  and  in  apparatus  therefor,"  and  the  invention 
is  said  to  "  embrace  and  relate  to  a  process  of  and  apparatus 
for  rolling  solid  or  hollow  metal  blocks  or  pieces,  and  thereby 
imparting  to  them  various  dimensions,  shapes,  sections,  or 
longitudinal  forms."  The  specification  proceeds  : — "  The 
process  consists  firstly  in  imparting  to  the  piece  to  be  rolled 
a  rope-like  twist  as  regards  the  outer  fibre.  For  this  purpose 
the  block  or  piece  is  made  to  rotate  between  two  plain  discs, 
or  between  two  or  more  conically-shaped  or  otherwise  formed 
rollers,  and  thereby  to  advance  slowly.  In  consequence  of 
the  different  speed  of  rotation  of  the  two  ends  of  the  blank, 
a  twist  similar  to  that  of  a  wire  rope  is  imparted  to  the  fibre 
of  the  rolled  product.  The  blank  successively  passes  between 
narrow  passages  of  the  discs  or  rollers,  and  is  thus  brought 
or  reduced  to  any  desirable  small  dimensions  as  regards 
section." 

In  the  drawings  accompanying  the  specification  is  illus- 
trated the  apparatus  for  rolling  various  dimensions  of  round 
iron  with  two  plain  discs.  These  discs  are  arranged  with 
horizontal  axes  somewhat  inclined  to  each  other,  and  the  one 
axis  is  a  little  higher  than  the  other.  The  inclination  of  the 
two  axes  in  relation  to  each  other  may  be  varied  to  obtain 
various  alterations  of  form,  and  the  difference  in  the  height 
of  the  axes  may  also  be  varied.  A  conical  space  is  thus 
formed  between  the  working  faces  of  the  discs,  and  the 
material  is  intr<  ductd  on  the 'wide  side  or  end  of  the  space. 
The  discs  revolve  in  opposite  directions  and  besides  rotating 
the  blank  they  impart  to  it  a  forward  motion,  varying  with 
the  difference  in  their  levels. 


IRON   AND   STEEL  TUBES.  33 

The  drawings  of  the  same  specification  also  illustrate  a 
method  of  rolling  with  an  oblique  or  diagonal  mill,  having 
rolls  mounted  in  bearings  provided  with  means  for  the 
necessary  adjustment  to  effect  the  oblique  rolling  of  blanks 
of  various  dimensions.  Tubes  are  formed  with  such  an 
oblique  or  diagonal  mill  by  fixing  a  mandrel  in  front  of  the 
centre  of  the  blank. 

In  the  following  year  (1886)  the  same  applicants  filed  a 
specification,  No.  9939,  1886,  setting  forth  an  invention 
which  they  describe  as  "  An  improvement  upon  and  further 
development  of  the  method  of  rolling  solid  or  hollow  blocks 
of  metal,"  for  \vhich  letters  patent,  No.  1167,  of  1885,  were 
granted.  The  inventors  state  that  their  process  "  consists 
mainly  in  working  upon  the  outside  of  a  solid  blank  by 
external  rolls  or  rollers  in  such  a  manner  that  the  blank 
assumes  a  tubular  shape,  either  no  core  or  mandrel  being 
employed  in  such  cases,  or  else  a  core  or  mandrel  being 
employed  for  the  purpose  of  smoothing  the  inside  of  the  pipe 
or  tube  thus  formed,  reducing  the  thickness  of  its  sides  or 
shell,  and  enlarging  its  internal  diameter." 

The  illustrations  at  the  adjoining  fig.  40  are  selected  from 
the  drawings  accompanying  the  1886  specification.  Referring 
to  the  elevation  and  plan  at  A,  the  axes  of  the  discs  or 
rollers  are  placed  at  an  angle  to  each  other,  as  illustrated, 
and  the  block  of  metal  a  to  be  operated  upon  has  a  rotary 
and  at  the  same  time  a  horizontal  motion  imparted  to  it. 

In  the  arrangement  shown  at  B  the  rollers  are  arranged 
over  and  under  each  other,  the  axes  being  inclined,  whilst  C 
represents  another  side-by-side  arrangement.  At  A  the 
working  takes  place  between  the  lateral,  but  at  B  and  C 
between  the  circumferential  surfaces  of  the  rollers.  Towards 
the  egress  side  the  distance  of  the  rollers  from  one  another 
becomes  less,  so  that  the  piece  of  metal  has  a  spiral  motion 
on  its  emergence  from  the  rolls.  Lateral  guides,  as  6,  are 
provided  for  the  purpose  of  regulating  the  motion  of  the 
blank  a,  and  such  guides  may  be  fitted  with  rollers,  as  at  D, 
to  obviate  excessive  heating  by  friction  during  working. 

"  When  the  blank  has  been  sufficiently  heated  to  make  it 
soft  enough,  or  if  possessed  of  a  sufficient  degree  of  plasticity 
at  ordinary  temperature,  and  if  during  the  passage  through 

4ST 


34 


THE   MANUFACTURE    OF 


FIG.  40. 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES.  35 

the  rollers  a  sufficient  reduction  of  dimensions  takes  place,  a 
transfer  of  metal  from  the  centre  towards  the  circumference 
of  the  blank  is  effected,  and  by  external  compressions  or  by 
displacement  of  molecules  a  pipe  or  tube  can  be  formed 
without  the  use  of  a  core.  Such  would,  for  example,  be  the 
case  if  a  cast-steel  billet  I'Sin.  diameter  be  worked,  and  if 
the  spiral  threads  performed  by  the  blank  be  not  too  distant 
from  each  other,  so  that  when  the  axis  of  rotation  of  the 
blank  forms  an  angle  of  6  degrees  with  the  roller,  the  blank 
of  1  '2  in.  advances  '08  in.  at  every  revolution.  The  dimen- 
sions of  the  hollow  formed  depends  upon  several  circum- 
stances, to  wit : — 

"  1.  The  proportion  between  the  speed  at  which  the  rotation 
takes  place  and  the  progress  of  the  blank.  The  hole  will  be 
largest  when  there  is  a  certain  proportion  between  the 
circular  and  the  rectilinear  motion,  which  is  determined  by 
the  nature  of  the  material,  the  temperature,  the  superficial 
area  of  the  rollers,  as  well  as  their  speed,  dimensions,  and 
position,  the  most  suitable  proportion  being  in  each  instance 
ascertained  by  practical  experience.  As  the  proportion 
varies  the  hole  becomes  less,  until  it  disappears  altogether, 
and  the  blank  remains  solid." 

"  2.  The  position  of  the  blank  between  the  rollers.  The 
more  central  the  position  of  the  blank,  the  larger  the  hole 
will  be,  and  conversely,  until  it  disappears  altogether  when 
the  blank  occupies  a  certain  lateral  position,  determined  by 
the  nature  of  the  material  and  the  temperature." 

"  3.  The  proportion  in  which  the  dimensions  of  the  blank 
are  being  reduced.  The  formation  of  the  hole  only  com- 
mences when  a  certain  reduction  takes  place,  and  thus  the 
size  of  the  hole  and  the  proportion  between  its  diameter  and 
the  external  dimensions  of  the  blank  increases  up  to  a  certain 
limit,  as  the  size  of  the  blank  is  growing  less." 

"  4.  The  angle  at  which  the  surfaces  of  the  rollers  work 
together." 

"  5.  The  twist  of  the  fibres." 

"  6.  The  configuration  of  the  surface  of  the  rollers.  Round 
or  angular  projections,  whether  parallel  to  the  axis  of  the 
roller  or  at  an  angle  thereto,  are  apt  to  facilitate  the  forma- 
tion of  the  hollow,  because  they  tend  to  increase  the 


3Q  THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 

superficial  area  of  the  blank.  For  the  purpose  of  varying 
the  size  of  the  hollow,  the  position  of  the  rollers  may  be 
adjusted  while  the  work  is  going  on,  or  during  the  intervals, 
by  means  of  suitable  levers  or  hydraulic  arrangements." 

"  If  a  solid  piece  of  metal,  as  E,  has  its  ends  bevelled  or 
tapered  down,  or  if  its  thickness  is  reduced  at  one  or  more 
places,  as  the  sample  F,  then  if  such  piece  of  metal  is  passed 
through  the  rolls  it  becomes  tubular  in  the  parts  that  were 
originally  thick,  and  remains  solid  at  those  parts  that  were 
reduced  in  size,  as  illustrated  at  E1  and  F1.  Billets  formed 
as  E1  may  be  used  for  railway  axles  such  as  G.  Where  the 
billet  or  blank  is  hollow  at  the  outset,  the  hole  may  be 
enlarged  by  the  proper  adjustment  of  the  position  of  the 
rollers  while  the  process  is  going  on,  and  this  enlargement 
may  take  place  although  the  diameter  of  the  blank  itself  is 
being  reduced,  as  illustrated  at  H.  By  means  of  a  core  or 
mandrel  a  greater  amount  of  smoothness  may  be  given  to 
hole.  The  mandrel  shown  at  J  is  prevented  from  sliding  in 
the  direction  of  its  axis,  and  the  blank  rotates  over  it  in  the 
form  of  a  pipe.  The  diameter  of  the  finished  pipe  or  tube 
may  be  equal  to,  larger,  or  smaller,  than  that  of  the  original 
blank,  but  in  practice  the  adjustment  is  to  be  made  in  such 
a  way  as  to  add  to  the  tendency  of  the  hole  to  enlarge  itself. 
To  this  end  the  core  or  mandrel  is  made  thicker  at  one  end, 
as  shown  at  K.  With  a  screw  and  nut  arrangement,  as  at  L, 
the  thickness  of  the  tube  may  be  varied  by  adjusting  the 
position  of  the  conical  mandrel.  In  the  arrangement  shown 
at  M  the  mandrel  shaft  is  in  tension  instead  of  compression, 
as  in  the  previous  cases.  In  the  arrangement  shown  at  N 
the  duty  of  the  core  or  mandrel  is  simply  to  enlarge  the 
hole  ;  it  takes  no  part  in  the  initial  formation  of  the  hole. 
A  combination  of  two  sets  of  rolls  is  illustrated  at  0." 

In  connection  with  the  foregoing  the  reader  should  refer 
to  Chapter  VIII.  of  this  edition. 

The  illustrations  at  fig.  41  are  from  the  drawings  accom- 
panying the  specification  No.  666,  of  1887,  filed  on  behalf  of 
the  Messrs.  Mannesmann.  The  shape  and  arrangement  of 
the  rolls  is  thus  described  in  the  specification  :  "  Two  or 
more  conical  rollers,  the  working  surfaces  of  which  are 
inclined  in  a  manner  to  give  a  conical  shape  to  the  blank 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES.  37 

between  them,  are  arranged  obliquely  to  each  other,  to 
revolve  in  suitable  bearings,  so  constructed  that  all  or  any  of 
the  rollers  may  be  adjusted  laterally,  vertically,  and  in 
respect  of  the  angle  of  inclination  to  its  fellow  or  fellows. 
All  the  rollers  are  laid  in  the  same  direction — that  is  to  say, 
the  ends  of  larger  diameter  are  all  situated  at  the  same  end 


FIG.  41. 

of  the  apparatus.  The  peripheries  of  the  rollers  have  formed 
on  them  a  number  of  helical  corrugations,  so  that  a  blank  or 
block  of  metal  fed  in  between  the  rollers  at  the  one  end  of 
the  apparatus  issues  from  the  other  end  in  the  form  of  a  pipe 
or  tube,  a  cylindrical  passage  being  formed  through  a  part  of 
the  length  of  the  same.  The  said  corrugations  gradually 


38 


THE   MANUFACTURE    OF 


disappear  towards  the  end  of  the  emergence,  in  order  to 
produce  an  externally  smooth  tube,  and  this  is  more 
effectually  attained  by  making  the  end  parts  of  the  rollers 
cylindrical,  as  shown  in  the  accompanying  drawings.  The 
rollers  are  caused  to  revolve,  by  any  suitable  power  and 


FIG.  42. 

gearing,  in  the  same  direction,  so  that  the~working  surfaces 
move  in  opposite  directions,  rolling  the  '•  blank  between 
them." 

The  illustrations  at  fig.  42  are  from  thefdrawings  accom- 
panying the  specification  No.  6453,  of  1887,  filed  on  behalf  of 


IRON   AND   STEEL   TUBES.  39 

Messrs.  Mannesmann,  representing  a  further  development  of 
their  method  of  transforming  solid  ingots  of  metal  into  tubes. 
A  is  a  plan  of  a  pair  of  hemispheroidal  rolls  mounted  upon 
the  opposite  ends  of  two  converging  shafts,  having  suitable 
portions  of  their  working  faces  convergent  and  the  re- 
maining portions  divergent,  showing  a  conical  mandrel 
interposed  between  the  divergent  portions  of  the  working 
faces,  and  also  showing  in  longitudinal  section  a  solid 
metallic  blank  which  has  been  seized  by  the  convergent 
portions  of  the  working  faces  and  has  commenced  its 
passage  between  the  rolls.  B  is  a  similar  view  representing 
the  blank  as  having  so  far  progressed  between  the  rolls  that 
there  has  been  formed  at  its  forward  end  a  tubular  recess, 
into  which  the  pointed  end  of  the  mandrel  projects.  C 
represents  the  blank  so  far  progressed  between  the  rolls  that 
the  rear  end  has  been  carried  nearly  to  the  point  of  the 
mandrel,  whilst  D  shows  the  conclusion  of  the  tube-forming 
and  enlarging  operation. 

From  a  paper  on  the  Mannesmann  process,  read  before  the 
British  Association  Bath  meeting,  in  1888,  the  following 
observations  are  selected,  as  they  may  perhaps  assist  the 
reader  in  appreciating  the  essential  features  in  the  arrange- 
ment of  the  apparatus  : — 

"  In  the  ordinary  rolling  of  iron  bars,  sheets,  &c.,  we 
have  '  longitudinal  rolling.'  In  rolling  for  the  purpose  of 
straightening  or  polishing  bars,  two  or  three  rolls  are 
employed  which  revolve  in  the  same  direction,  and  the  bar 
is  inserted  at  the  ends  of  the  rolls,  or  in  the  direction  of 
their  longitudinal  axis,  instead  of  at  right  angles  thereto. 
With  such  rolling  the  bar  is  not  drawn  forward,  but  simply 
rotates,  and  if  sufficient  pressure  is  applied  the  bar  is 
elongated,  but  no  decided  fibre  is  produced.  This  may  be 
termed  *  circular  rolling' — that  is,  the  bar  is  rotated.  In  the 
Mannesmann  process  two  or  three  rolls  may  be  employed 
turning  in  the  same  direction,  thus  imparting  a  rotative 
movement  in  the  opposite  direction  to  the  bar  to  be  operated 
upon.  The  two  or  more  rolls  are,  however,  arranged  at  an 
angle  with  each  other  in  such  a  manner  as  to  impart  also 
a  forward  motion  to  the  blank." 

The  following  patent  applications  have  been  filed  by  or 


40  THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 

on  behalf  of  Mannesmann,  subsequently  to  those  previously 
noted :  No.  9754,  of  1888  ;  No.  3371,  of  1891 ;  No.  4595,  of 
1892;  and  No.  7153,  of  1892.  The  three  last-named 
patents  are  in  force.  See  also  list  given  in  appendix. 

THE  STIEFEL  PROCESS. 

The  specification  No.  23702,  of  1895,  of  Ralph  Charles 
Stiefel,  of  Pennsylvania,  U.S.A.,  has  attracted  much 
attention  in  this  country.  The  illustrations  at  fig.  43  are 
from  the  drawings  accompanying  this  specification,  which 
is  entitled,  "  Improvements  in  mechanism  for  piercing  solid 
metallic  ingots  or  blanks,"  and  the  inventor  states  that  his 
object  is  to  pierce  metallic  blanks  or  billets  in  a  heated  state 
without  subjecting  them  to  torsional  strain  or  materially 
disturbing  the  longitudinal  arrangement  of  the  fibres  of  the 
metal.  The  mechanism  for  accomplishing  this  object 
consists  of  a  pair  of  specially  constructed  and  arranged 
parallel  discs  and  a  piercing  mandrel,  by  means  of  which  the 
heated  blanks  or  billets  may  be  drawn  and  pierced  at  one 
operation.  In  this  operation  a  blank  is  passed  between  the 
adjacent  faces  of  the  two  parallel  discs,  \vhich  impart  to  it  a 
rotary  motion,  and  at  the  same  time  a  longitudinal  motion 
which  forces  it  against  a  conical  piercing  mandrel  lying  in 
the  path  of  the  axis  of  the  blank ;  the  arrangement  of  the 
working  surfaces  of  the  discs  is  such  that  a  practically 
uniform  speed  of  rotation  is  imparted  to  each  and  every 
portion  of  the  blank  lying  between  and  being  acted  upon  by 
them,  thus  producing  a  drawing  action  upon  the  blank  that 
does  not  materially  alter  the  longitudinal  arrangement  or 
relation  of  the  fibres  in  the  blank,  or  in  the  final  product 
thereof,  during  any  changes  wrought  in  its  diameter.  The 
grip  of  the  disc  on  the  blank  gives  sufficient  power  in  its 
forward  and  rotary  movements  to  force  it  on  to  and  over  the 
mandrel,  which  thus  pierces  its  centre.  The  mandrel  may 
be  fixed,  or  it  may  be  rotated  at  a  speed  different  from  the 
speed  of  the  blank,  in  order  to  impart  to  it  a  more  or  less 
energetic  boring  effect  in  penetrating  into  the  blank. 

A,  fig.  43,  is  a  plan  view  partially  in  section  of  the  pair  of 
discs,  with  a  piercing  mandrel  the  point  of  which  is  between 


IRON   AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


41 


the  working  surfaces  and  a  blank,  or  billet,  embraced  by  the 
discs  and  undergoing  the  process  of  being  pierced  by  the 
mandrel.  B  is  a  side  view  of  the  same,  some  of  the  parts 
being  broken  away  to  more  clearly  illustrate  the  construction 


FIG.  43. 


of  those  behind  them.  The  blank  enters  the  "pass  "  between 
the  rolls  or  discs  from  the  side  b,  and  is  gripped,  revolved 
and  forced  by  the  rolls  over  the  mandrel  as  illustrated.  The 
guide  blocks  a  are  employed  to  hold  the  blanks  in  proper 
position. 


42  THE   MANUFACTURE  OF 


CHAPTER  VI. 

VARIOUS    PROCESSES    AND   MACHINERY   RELATING    TO    THE 
MANUFACTURE  OF  SEAMLESS  STEEL  TUBES. 

The  Credenda  Tube  Co. — The  improvements  described 
in  the  specification,  No.  12823,  of  1885,  of  W.  C.  Stiff  and 
H.  B.  S.  Bennett,  of  the  Credenda  Tube  Co.,  of  Birmingham, 
have  reference  to  the  formation  of  the  axial  hole  in  the 
ingot  or  bloom  from  which  the  steel  tube  is  made.  The 
inventors  state  that  "  in  the  ordinary  methods  of  manufac- 
turing seamless  steel  tubes,  a  solid  cylindrical  ingot  or 
bloom  or  bar  is  formed  by  rolling  or  hammering  or  by 
casting,  and  an  axial  hole  is  made  in  the  said  ingot  or 
bloom  by  drilling  or  punching,  the  partly  made  tube  being 
completed  by  rolling  and  drawing  in  the  ordinary  way ;  or 
the  said  hole  is  formed  in  the  casting  process.  According 
to  our  invention,  we  first  drill  or  punch  a  small  axial  hole 
in  the  said  ingot  or  bar,  and  afterwards  enlarge  the  said 
hole  to  the  required  diameter  by  a  drawing  process  con- 
ducted in  the  following  manner  :  We  fix  the  axially-d rilled 
cylindrical  ingot  or  bar  on  a  bed  or  holder,  and  while  the 
said  ingot  or  bar  is  so  fixed  we  enlarge  the  small  axial  hole 
in  it  by  means  of  a  bulb  mandrel  worked  by  a  powerful 
draw  bench  or  machine,  the  rod  or  stem  of  the  bulb  mandrel 
being  passed  through  the  small  axial  hole  in  the  ingot.  By 
the  action  of  the  bulb  of  the  mandrel  upon  the  axial  hole 
through  which  it  is  drawn  the  said  hole  is  expanded  to  the 
required  diameter,  the  metal  thus  displaced  expanding 
radially,  and  increasing  the  external  diameter  of  the  ingot 
or  bar.  The  steel  ingot  or  bar  is  at  the  same  time  consoli- 
dated. The  ingot  or  partly-formed  tube,  after  the  hole  in 
it  has  been  increased  in  diameter  to  the  required  extent, 
may,  by  a  rolling  or  drawing  operation,  be  diminished  in 
diameter,  and  the  ingot  again  subjected  to  the  action  of  the 
bulb  mandrel,  so  as  to  again  increase  the  diameter  of 
the  hole.  Instead  of  drawing  the  bulb  mandrel  through  the 
ingot  or  bar,  the  bulb  mandrel  may  be  stationary,  and  the 


IRON  AND  STEEL  TUBES. 


43 


ingot  or  bar  drawn  over  the  same,  or  the  mandrel  may  be 
pushed  through  the  ingot  or  bar.  In  this  way  the  ingot  or 
partly-made  tube  may  be  consolidated  to  any  desired  extent, 
and  an  axial  hole  of  the  required  diameter  formed  in  it. 
When  we  make  the  small  initial  hole  by  drilling,  we  effect 
the  drilling  while  the  ingot  or  bar  is  cold;  but  when  such 


^     IT 


FIG.  44. 


hole  is  formed  by  punching,  we  effect  such  punching  on  a 
heated  ingot  or  bar.  All  the  subsequent  processes  we 
perform  while  the  ingot  or  bar  is  hot.  The  improvements 
described  may  be  applied  to  the  manufacture  of  tubes  and 
ordnance,  made  either  of  steel  or  iron." 


44  THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 

The  illustrations  at  fig.  44  are  from  the  drawings  accom- 
panying the  specification,  A  being  a  longitudinal  section, 
and  B  a  plan  of  a  draw-bench  arranged  for  the  enlargement 
of  the  small  axial  hole  in  the  ingot  a  by  the  bulb-headed 
mandrel  b.  C  is  a  section  representing  the  enlargement  of 
the  hole  in  a  taper  tube,  suitable  for  the  manufacture  of 
ordnance. 

Draiving  Tubes  with  an  Infernal  Taper. — In  his  specifica- 
tion, No.  1449,  of  1876,  describing  a  process  of  tapering 
steel  tube?,  Thomas  Rickett,  of  Birmingham,  states  :  "  It 
is  commonly  known  that  locomotive  boiler  tubes  are 
invariably  made  taper  inside  and  parallel  outside — that  is 
to  say,  nearly  double  the  thickness  at  the  firebox  end  to  that 
at  the  smoke-box  end.  This  is  done  in  order  to  have  the 
greater  thickness  where  the  most  wear  exists,  and  the  lesser 
thickness  where  not  required  for  wear  and  tear,  to  economise 
cost  and  weight,  and  also  because  a  thinner  tube  conducts 
heat  more  rapidly  than  a  thicker  one.  Brass  and  copper 
tubes  are  made  taper  inside  by  drawing  them  upon  a  taper 
bar  or  mandrel  the  entire  length  of  the  tube  and  afterwards 
stripping  the  tube  off  the  mandrel,  a  process  which  is  not 
practicable  for  steel, tubes;  and  at  present,  to  the  best  of  my 
knowledge,  there  is  no  plan  existing  by  which  steel  tubes 
may  be  drawn  with  an  internal  taper,  as  desired,  for  boiler 
tubes." 

The  inventor  then  proceeds  1o  state  that,  "in  the  process 
of  drawing  steel  tubes  the  tubes  are  usually  drawn  over  a 
fixed  bulb-headed  mandrel,  adjusted  so  that  the  centre  or 
largest  part  of  the  bulb  end  is  in  the  centre  or  smallest  part 
of  the  die,  and  my  improved  plan  of  tapering  consists  in 
having  a  short  taper  mandrel  or  plug  arranged  so  that 
during  the  process  of  drawing  the  tubes  through  a  fixed  die 
the  taper  mandrel  or  plug  is  moved  forwards  or  backwards 
as  required,  by  any  suitable  mechanical  means,  and  it  is 
evident  that  if  a  tube  be  drawn  over  a  taper  plug  when  the 
small  end  is  in  the  centre  of  the  die,  the  tube  will  be  of  a 
thickness  equal  to  the  annular  space  between  the  small  end 
of  the  plug  and  the  centre  of  the  die,  and  if  another  tube  be 
drawn  over  this  same  plug  when  the  large  end  is  in  the 
centre  of  the  die,  the  tube  when  drawn  will  be  thinner  than 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


45 


the  previous  one  in  proportion  to  the  taper  on  the  plug. 
If,  now,  the  same  plug  is  made  to  change  its  position  with 
regard  to  the  die  by  mechanical  means  during  the  process 
of  drawing,  the  small  end  being  in  the  centre  of  the  die 
when  the  tube  is  beginning  to  be  drawn,  and  the  plug 
gradually  moving  forwards  until  the  large  end  is  in  the 


IT    :.o 


FIG.  45. 

centre  of  the  die  at  the  finish  of  the  drawing,  a  tube  will  be 
produced  having  an  internal  taper  corresponding  to  the 
taper  on  the  plug,  and  proportionate  in  length  to  the 
relative  speed  by  which  it  is  made  to  traverse — that  is,  if 
the  length  of  the  tube  to  be  drawn  is  12ft.  when  finished, 
and  the  length  of  the  taper  required  on  the  plug  be  1|  in., 


46 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


then  the  speed  of  the  bench  compared  with  that  of  the  plug 
will  be  as  96  to  1,  and  for  an  8  ft.  tube  as  64  to  1." 

The  illustrations  at  figs.  45  and  46  are  from  the  drawings 
of  Rickett's  specification,  A  being  a  side  elevation,  partly  in 
section,  showing  the  tapering  gear  fitted  to  a  hydraulic  draw 
bench,  and  B  a  plan  of  such  gearing.  C  is  an  end  view 
showing  the  tapering  gear,  and  D  a  transverse  section  of  the 
draw  bench.  E,  F,  G,  H,  J,  and  K  are  sections  to  a  larger 
scale,  E  representing  the  parallel  tube  passed  over  the  taper 
plug  and  ready  for  being  tapered  by  drawing  it  off  again. 


FIG.  46. 

F  shows  the  commencement  of  the  tapering  at  the  small  end 
of  the  plug.  G  shows  the  completion  of  the  tapering  at  the 
large  end  of  the  plug.  H  shows  the  section  of  a  parallel 
tube,  and  J  a  section  of  the  same  tube  after  having  passed 
through  the  tapering  process.  K  shows  a  similar  tube  with 
thickened  end,  giving  greater  strength  for  fixing  into  boiler. 
This  patent  lapsed,  of  course,  some  years  since. 

Taper  Tubes. — The  illustrations  at  fig.   47  are  from  the 
specification  No.   13357,  of  1888,  of  William  Pilkington,  Of 


IRON   AND    STEEL   TUBES. 


47 


Birmingham,  for  "  Improvements  in  the  tapering  of  or 
reducing  of  tubes  of  iron,  steel,  or  other  metals,  and  in  the 
ornamentation  thereof."  The  inventor  states  that  he  con- 
structs "one,  two,  or  more  dies  or  moulds,  having  in  each  a 
tapered  aperture.  If  more  than  one  die  is  used,  each  is 
locked  or  stayed  to  the  other,  thus  forming  an  uninterrupted 
tapered  passage ;  the  number  of  dies  varies  according  to 


FIG.  47. 

the  length  of  the  tapering  of  the  tube.  I  take  a  tube  of  the 
required  length  and  place  it  in  or  at  the  mouth  of  the 
aperture  in  the  uppermost  die,  and  by  means  of  hydraulic 
or  other  pressure  I  force  the  one  end  of  the  said  tube  down 
the  dies,  and  so  taper  or  reduce  the  tube."  This  patent 
became  void  in  1892. 

The  illustrations  at  fig.  48  are  from  the  specification  No. 
17090,  of  1892,  in  the  names  of  W.  Pilkington,  C.  T.  Bishop, 


48 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


and  others,  for  "Improvements  in  apparatus  to  be  employed 
in  the  manufacture  of  metallic  tapered  tubes."  The  patentees 
state  that  their  invention  relates  to  "  the  converting  of  a 
parallel  tube  into  a  tapered  tube  by  the  employment  of 
semi-elliptical  grooved  rolls,  through  which  the  parallel 


FIG.  48. 

tube  is  passed  when  placed  upon  a  conoidal  mandrel  under 
the  yielding  pressure  or  resistance  of  springs,  steam, 
hydraulic,  pneumatic,  or  other  elastic  or  yielding  power." 
A  is  a  sectional  view  of  a  parallel  tube  upon  a  conoidal 
mandrel,  preparatory  to  rolling  and  converting  to  a  tapered 
tube.  B  is  a  section  showing  the  process  of  the  first  pass 


IKON   AND   STEEL   TUBES. 


49 


through  the  rolls.  C  is  a  view  of  the  rolls,  with  formation 
of  the  tube  upon  the  conoidal  mandrel  by  the  first  pass. 
D  is  a  section  showing  the  second  pass  through  the  rolls, 
and  E  of  the  finished  tapered  tube  on  its  mandrel.  After 


cceo 


FIG.  49. 


the  first  pass  through  the  rolls,  the  tube  and  mandrel  are 
turned  through  a  quarter  of  a  revolution,  thus  bringing  the 
portions  of  the  tube  between  the  rolls  which  were  not 
affected  during  the  first  rolling.  The  required  pressure 
upon  the  upper  roll  is  imposed,  in  the  additional  drawings 

5ST 


50  THE  MANUFACTUKE  OF 

accompanying  the  specification,  by  means  of  a  spiral  spring 
which  allows  the  roll  to  automatically  adjust  itself  to  the 
varying  diameter  of  the  mandrel.  This  patent  became  void 
in  1898. 

The  illustrations,  fig.  49,  are  from  the  specification  No. 
15308,  of  1885,  of  Henry  Waters,  of  Birmingham,  for 
"  Improvements  in  the  manufacture  or  production  of  tubes, 
rods,  and  other  articles  having  a  taper  or  undulating  figure." 
The  invention  is  stated  to  "  consist  preferably  in  the  con- 
struction and  arrangement  of  expanding  and  contracting 
dies,  which  are  opened  and  closed  in  order  to  create  a 
greater  or  less  aperture  or  eye  on  the  drawing  of  the  die 
dish  or  carrier  over  a  tube  or  rod  to  be  tapered  or  shaped. 
The  contraction  and  expansion  of  the  segments  of  the  dies 
which  enclose  or  form  the  eye  or  aperture,  is  effected  by  an 
inclined  plane  or  pattern,  corresponding  to  the  taper  or 
figure  of  the  object  to  be  drawn,  tapered,  or  shaped.  This 
inclined  plane  or  pattern  acts  in  conjunction  with  the 
segments  of  the  dies  in  such  a  manner  that  a  tube,  rod,  or 
other  object  is  drawn  with  a  progressive  taper,  or  with  an 
undulatory  or  other  figure,  by  the  traversing  and  closing 
of  the  dies  upon  the  object  being  fashioned,  and  during  this 
operation  the  object  itself  is  rotating.  This  rotation  is 
simply  to  counteract  any  defects  which  may  incidentally 
occur  in  the  figure  or  formation  of  the  acting  parts  of  the 
die."  This  patent  became  void  in  1890. 

A  process  of  making  seamless  steel  tubes  from  an  ingot 
having  a  core  of  yielding  refractory  material  is  set  forth  in 
the  specification  No.  1467,  of  1888,  of  C.  A.  Marshall,  of 
Pennsylvania,  U.S.A.  The  illustrations  at  fig.  50  set  forth 
the  process.  The  ingot  is  cast  of  a  form  such  as  shown  at  A, 
having  a  core  a  of  yielding  refractory  material,  such  as 
powdered  graphite  having  dry  fire  clay  mixed  therewith, 
contained  in  a  casing  b.  B  represents  the  ingot  reduced  to 
a  flattened  blank  by  rolls  or  by  external  pressure.  C 
represents  the  blank  partially  opened.  D  is  a  cross- 
section  of  the  partially  completed  tube  as  it  appears 
when  ready  to  be  drawn  over  the  shaping  ball  or  mandrel. 
E  represents  a  cross-section  through  the  partially  completed 
tube  and  the  point  of  a  mandrel.  F  is  a  cross-section  of 


IRON   AND   STEEL   TUBES. 


51 


n 


\j 


/f 


M 


ft  3  T 

FIG.  50. 


52 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


the  finished  cylindrical  tube.  G,  H,  J,  K,  L,  M  represent 
modified  forms  of  ingot  cores,  and  N  and  0  modified  forms 
of  blanks.  P  and  Q  represent  modified  forms  into  which 
the  blank  may  be  partially  opened.  B,  S,  and  T  illustrate 
different  forms  of  rolls  for  partially  opening  the  blank,  and 
U  a  set  of  guides.  This  patent  was  allowed  to  lapse  before 
the  expiration  of  full  term. 

The  "  improvements  in  the  manufacture  of  solid  drawn  or 
seamless  tubes  and   in  machinery   employed  in  the  manu- 


FIG.  51. 

facture  thereof,"  as  described  in  the  specification  of  W. 
Pilkington  and  others,  No.  14278,  of  1888,  comprise  the  use 
of  three  rolls  with  helical  grooves  extending  along  their 
surfaces.  Fig.  51  is  an  end  elevation,  and  fig.  52  a  front 
elevation  of  the  rolls.  The  rolls  are  preferably  of  an  equal 
diameter,  and  their  axes  are  parallel  or  nearly  parallel  to 
each  other.  The  helical  grooves  extend  from  end  to  end. 
At  the  entering  end  a  the  grooves  are  deep,  but  as  they 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


63 


proceed  along  the  rolls  they  become  shallower,  until,  on 
reaching  the  leaving  end  6,  the  depth  is  comparatively  nil. 
The  grooves  in  each  of  the  rolls  are  of  the  same  pitch,  so 
that  when  the  three  rolls  are  rotated  simultaneously  at  the 
same  speed  and  in  the  proper  direction  on  their  axes  they 
form  in  the  triangular  space  where  they  meet,  a  kind  of  nut 
or  internal  threaded  screw,  so  that  any  object  fitting  into 
the  grooves  of  the  rolls  would  be  carried  along  from  the 


FIG.  52. 

entering  end  a  to  the  leaving  end  b.  The  rolls  are  mounted 
upon  any  ordinary  frame,  and  in  such  a  manner  that  the 
hollow  ingot  or  tube  use  c  on  the  mandrel  d  can  be  presented 
endwise  in  the  space  between  the  rolls  at  the  entering  end  a, 
to  be  seized  by  the  helical  grooves  in  the  rolls,  and  thus 
carried  in  a  direction  parallel  to  the  axes  of  the  rolls,  and 
out  at  the  leaving  end  6.  When  the  ingot  or  tube  use  is 
first  seized  by  the  rolls  it  has  deep  impressions  formed  in  it 
by  the  grooves,  but  as  it  passes  along  the  rolls  the  grooves 


54 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


become  shallower,  until  finally  on  leaving  the  rolls  the  tube 
use  is  in  the  form  of  a  hollow  cylinder  of  smaller  outside 
diameter  than  when  it  entered  the  rolls,  but  longer,  and 
with  its  metal  more  dense. 

To  free  the  mandrel  from  the  tube  use  after  it  has  passed 
through  the  rolls,  it  is  sometimes  put  through  a  pair  of 
ordinary  grooved  rolls  in  a  direction  at  right  angles  to  the 
axes  of  such  rolls,  with  the  result  that  the  tube  is  bulged  to 


FIG.  53. 

a  sufficient  extent  to  release  the  mandrel.  The  method  of 
releasing  the  mandrel  illustrated  in  the  drawings  consists 
in  the  provision  of  a  square  head  such  as  d'  on  the  head  of 
the  mandrel,  which,  when  the  tube  use  is  nearly  through  the 
helically-grooved  rolls,  is  brought  up  and  into  a  holder  e, 
which  retains  and  prevents  rotation  of  the  mandrel  d,  but 
the  tube  use  c  by  the  action  of  the  rolls  is  still  carried 
onwards  and  thus  withdrawn  from  the  mandrel  and  freed 


IRON  AND    STEEL  TUBES. 


55 


at  the  leaving  end  b.  The  tube  is  finished  by  drawing  on  a 
mandrel  through  dies  in  an  ordinary  drawbench.  This 
patent  became  void  in  1893. 

The  specification  No.  16934,  1889,  of  William  Pilkington 
and  others,  of  the  Birmingham  Climax  Steel  Tube  Co., 
describes  a  process  for  the  conversion  of  a  cylindrical  steel 


FIG.  54. 

ingot  into  a  comparatively  short  thick  tube  which  is  sub- 
sequently dealt  with  by  other  means.  The  process  is 
illustrated  at  figs.  53  and  54.  A  comparatively  small  hole 
is  first  bored  through  the  my:ot  in  the  direction  of  its  length 
in  the  ordinary  manner.  The  ingot  is  then  heated,  and 
there  is  forced  into  it  at  one  end  a  mandrel  having  a  loose 
coaoidal  end,  and  the  hot  ingot  is  then  rolled  over  the 
mandrel  in  a  tube-rolling  mill  such  as  illustrated.  The 
mandrel  is  prevented  from  moving  with  the  ingot  which  is 


56 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


forced  over  it  by  the  action  of  the  rolls,  and  thereby 
lengthened,  whilst  the  hole  is  enlarged.  This  patent  became 
void  in  1893. 

The  specification  No.  9657,  of  1893,  by  the  same  patentees, 
relates  to  the  construction  and  arrangement  of  machines  and 


/ 

/ 

\ 

^,  —  ^    / 

J= 

0| 

n 

\ 

\ 
\ 
\  / 

i 

^  -___.^  ^ 

v*-—  - 

FIG.  55 


mills  for  rolling  metal  tubes,  with  the  object  of  reducing 
the  diameter  and  drawing  down  the  tubes  while  in  a  cold 
state,  and  without  requiring  that  the  metal  shall  be 
annealed  after  each  operation.  The  machines  are  also 
employed  for  rolling  tubes  which  have  been  drawn  cold  on  a 


IRON   AND   STEEL   TUBES. 


57 


mandrel,  the  object  of  such  rolling  being  to  release  the  tube 
from  the  mandrel. 

Fig.  55  is  an  end  elevation  and  fig.  56  a  side  elevation  of 
a  machine  constructed    in  accordance  with  this  invention. 


FIG.  56. 


Three  or  more  peculiarly-formed  rolls  are  mounted  within 
side  frames  or  housings  on  spindles,  which  are  arranged  at 
an  angle  with  each  other.  The  working  surfaces  of  the  rolls 
are  preferably  in  the  form  of  bulbs  or  round-edged  discs. 


58 


THE   MANUFACTUKE   OF 


The  tube  a  to  be  drawn  down  or  operated  upon  is  passed 
through  the  rolls  in  the  direction  of  their  length.  As  the 
tube  enters  the  machine  it  is  first  caught  up  by  the  three 
inclined  rollers  at  their  most  open  or  widest  part,  and  it  is 
then  drawn  through  by  the  revolution  of  the  rolls  in  a 
manner  which  causes  a  gradually  reducing  area  or  opening 
to  be  presented  for  the  passage  of  the  tube.  The  tube  is 
thus  caused  to  be  drawn  through  the  rolls  in  a  spiral 


FIG.  57. 


Fio.  58. 


manner,  the  bulb  or  curved  edges  of  the  rolls  acting  mean- 
time upon  the  surface  of  the  metal  to  draw  it  out  or 
gradually  reduce  its  thickness  during  the  passage  through 
the  machine.  This  patent  became  void  in  1901. 

The  difficulty  of  withdrawing  a  tube  from  its  mandrel 
has  engaged  the  attention  of  a  German  inventor,  Wilhelm 
Lorenz,  with  the  result  that  in  his  specification  No.  12624, 
of  1888,  he  sets  forth  a  method  of  employing  an  explosive 
charge  for  this  purpose,  to  be  fired  by  an  electric  spark, 
which  is  sufficiently  explained  in  the  accompanying  fig.  57. 
In  the  modification  at  fig.  58,  liquid  pressure  is  forced  in 


IRON   AND    STC.EL   TUBES. 


59 


between  the  surfaces  of  the  mandrel  and  the  drawn  article. 
This  patent  became  void  in  1892. 

A  jointed  mandrel  for  tube  coiling  and  bending,  illustrated 
by  the  figs.  59  and  60,  is  from  the  specification  No.  5012,  of 
1885,  of  George  Round,  of  Smethwick.  This  patent  became 
void  in  1889. 

A  considerable  number  of  specifications  have  been  filed 
in  this  country  by  or  on  behalf  of  Charles  Kellogg,  an 
American.  In  1883  he  filed  the  specification  No.  2844, 


FIG.  69. 

describing  what  is  termed  a  "universal  rolling  mill."  In- 
ordinary  rolling  mills  the  under  or  lower  roll  is  mounted  in 
fixed  bearings,  which  are  incapable  of  vertical  adjustment, 
all  the  adjustment  required  being  made  with  the  top  roll. 
Such  an  arrangement  is  quite  suitable  for  rolling  solid 
articles,  but  in  the  rolling  of  tubes  there  is  the  disadvantage 


Fio. 


when  working  with  a  supported  mandrel  that  the  surfaces  of 
the  rolls  are  not  maintained  at  equal  distances  from  the 
centre  line  of  the  mandrel.  In  his  specification  referred  to, 
Kellogg  partly  overcame  this  objection  by  mounting  both 
upper  and  lower  rolls  in  adjustable  bearings,  and  in  his 
specification  No.  12042,  of  1887,  he  improves  on  this  by 
providing  means  for  the  simultaneous  adjustment  of  all  the 


•60 


THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 


rolls  iu  the  mill.  The  adjustment  is  effected  by  the  opera- 
tion of  steam-driven  racks.  The  patent  No.  2844,  of  1883, 
became  void  in  1890,  and  the  patent  No.  12042,  of  1887, 
became  void  in  1893. 

The  illustrations  at  figs.  61  to  64  inclusive  are  from 
Kellogg' s  specification  No.  2933,  of  1889.  The  inventor 
describes  the  object  of  his  invention  as  follows:  "It  has 
been  discovered  that  hollow  steel  ingots  can  be  converted 
into  seamless  tubes,  columns,  and  similar  articles,  by  means 
of  an  organised  machine  composed  of  a  series  of  pairs  of 
positively-driven  rolls  and  a  tapered  mandrel  extended 
between  the  rolls,  and  that  such  articles  can  be  manufactured 


FIG.  61. 

more  rapidly  by  making  the  mandrel  immovable,  and 
arranging  the  supports  or  holders  therefor  so  that  the  heated 
ingot  can  be  passed  over  the  supported  end  of  the  mandrel 
Avithout  changing  the  relation  of  the  mandrel  to  the  rolls." 

The  object  of  the  invention  is,  first,  to  produce  seamless 
tubes,  &c.,  from  hollow  ingots  by  means  of  an  organised 
machine,  consisting  of  a  series  cf  pairs  of  suitably-shaped 
rolls,  each  successive  pair  of  the  series  being  driven  at  a 
greater  speed  than  the  preceding  pair,  and  a  tapered  or 
conical  mandrel  placed  between  the  series  of  rolls;  second,  to 
progressively  roll  and  reduce  a  series  of  heated  ingots  into 
tubes  or  similar  articles  in  the  same  machine,  so  that  the 
several  stages  of  the  operation,  from  placing  the  heated 
ingot  on  the  mandrel,  the  progressive  rolling  and  reduction 
of  a  number  of  ingots,  and  the  delivery  of  a  completed  tube 
off  the  end  of  the  mandrel,  may  be  carried  on  simultaneously 
and  continuously ;  third,  to  support  or  hold  a  mandrel 
between  a  series  of  pairs  of  rolls,  so  that  a  heated  ingot  can 


IKON   AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


61 


be  placed  on  the  mandrel  and  fed  to  the  rolls  without 
decentering  the  mandrel;  fourth,  to  provide  means  for 
independently  operating  the  grips  by  which  the  mandrel 
is  held;  fifth,  to  provide  means  for  cooling  the  mandrel 
without  exposing  the  heated  ingot  to  the  cooling  agent 

The  adjoining  fig.  61  is  a  sectional  side  elevation  of  the 
machine,  showing  the  operation  of  feeding  and  reducing  a 


series  of  ingots  simultaneously.  Fig.  62  is  a  horizontal 
section  to  a  larger  scale  through  one  of  the  grips,  arid 
longitudinally  of  the  mandrel  and  of  an  ingot  thereon,  also 
showing  means  of  controlling  the  flow  of  water  into  and  out 
of  the  mandrel,  and  the  gradual  reduction  of  the  ingot  by 
the  several  pairs  of  rolls  during  the  "pass"  through  the 


machine.  Fig.  63  shows  in  cross-section  the  various  forms 
given  to  the  ingot  by  the  successive  pairs  of  rolls.  Fig.  64 
represents  one  of  the  grips  in  the  open  position  and  the 
means  by  which  it  is  operated.  The  same  reference  letters 
in  the  different  views  indicate  the  same  parts.  A,  A1 
indicate  the  rolls,  which  are  arranged  in  pairs,  and  so 
disposed  as  to  bring  into  alternate  relation  the  horizontal 
rolls  A  and  the  vertical  rolls  A1.  The  rolls  are  each  provided 
with  a  peripheral  groove  of  such  shape  in  cross-section  that 


C2  THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 

the  grooves  in  the  rolls  of  each  pair  form  a  cavity  or  "  pass  " 
of  the  same  shape  that  the  article  is  intended  to  receive  from 
the  rolls.  The  rolls  of  each  pair  nre  caused  to  rotate 
positively  together  in  unison  by  suitable  gearing.  B  is  the 
mandrel,  which  is  preferably  made  with  a  uniform  taper 
commencing  near  the  outer  side  of  the  first  pair  of  rolls,  and 
extending  to  the  end,  which  rests  between  the  last  or 
discharging  pair  of  rolls ;  it  is  also  made  hollow  to  facilitate 
cooling.  The  object  of  thus  tapering  the  mandrel  (which  is 
clearly  shown  at  fig.  62)  is  to  facilitate  the  rolling  action, 
the  bind  of  the  metal  against  the  mandrel  occurring  only  in 
the  line  of  the  bite  of  the  rolls,  the  ingots  being  of  larger 
internal  diameter  than  the  mandrel  on  both  sides  of  this 
line.  Hence  the  resistance  to  the  drawing  action  of  the 
rolls  occurs  only  at  the  point  of  reduction ;  beyond  this 
point,  between  the  successive  pairs  of  rolls,  the  ingot  meets 
with  no  resistance  to  its  progress  from  the  mandrel,  and  the 
result  is  that  the  rolling  can  be  performed  more  rapidly  and 
with  less  power  by  using  a  tapered  mandrel  than  with  any 
other  known  form. 

The  ingot  grips  are  placed  in  the  positions  C,  C1  at  fig.  61, 
in  front  of  the  first  pair  of  rolls.  Each  grip  works  inde- 
pendently, and  is  operated  by  its  own  mechanism.  The 
group  C1  is  placed  as  closely  as  possible  to  the  first  pair  of 
rolls,  but  the  grip  C  is  far  enough  from  the  grip  C1  to  permit 
of  an  ingot  being  placed  in  the  mandrel  between  them,  as 
shown  at  fig.  61.  Each  grip  is  formed  from  a  pair  of  arms 
I),  Dl,  fig.  64,  pivoted  together  by  the  pin  E.  The  grips 
are  opened  and  closed  by  a  ram  working  in  the  cylinder  F, 
under  the  action  of  steam,  water,  or  other  fluid  pressure. 

The  cooling  of  the  mandrel  is  effected  by  the  circulation 
of  water  from  the  inlet  G  through  the  internal  pipe  G1,  fig. 
62,  and  back  through  the  annular  space  between  the  pipe 
and  the  internal  surface  of  the  mandrel  to  the  outlet  G2.  The 
inlet  and  outlet  connections  are  formed  in  the  jaws  of  the 
grip  D,  but  valves  are  arranged  to  prevent  discharge  of 
the  water  when  the  jaws  are  opened.  This  patent  became 
void  in  1894. 

In  his  specification  No.  8152,  of  1890,  Kellogg  describes  an 
improved  mandrel  for  use  with  the  apparatus  described  in 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


63 


FIG.  64. 


64 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


the  aforesaid  patent  of  1889;  and  in  his  specification  No. 
16990,  of  1890,  further  improvements  on  the  1889  machine 
are  set  forth.  Both  these  patents  became  void  in  1894. 

On  May  1st,  1888,  S.  P.  Tasker,  of  Philadelphia,  filed  his 
British  specification  No.  6493,  for  "  Rolling  mills  for  making 


FIG.  65. 


Fio.  68. 


FIG.  66. 


FIG.  70. 


FIG.  69. 


tubes  from  hollow  metal  ingots,"  in  which  he  sets  forth 
that  the  object  of  his  invention,  broadly  stated,  is  "  the 
manufacture  of  a  tube  from  a  hollow  cylindriform  metal 
ingot  (preferably  a  steel  cast  ingot)  by  the  simultaneous 
subjection  of  the  external  surfaces  of  said  ingot  (either  hot 
or  cold)  to  the  action  of  external  compression  roils,  and  of 


IRON   AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


65 


the  internal  surfaces  of  said  ingot  to  the  action  of  positively- 
driven  rolls,  which  subserve  also  the  office  of  a  ball  or 
mandrel  proper,  the  result  of  the  said  subjection  being  not 
only  the  positive  feeding  of  the  ingot  through  the  rolling 
mill  constituted  by  the  rolls  referred  to,  but  the  compacting, 
consolidation,  thinning,  and  reduction  of  the  substance  of 
the  :walls  of  the  ingot,  and  its  consequent  extension  or 
increase  in  length." 

On  the  same  date  the  same  inventor  filed  an  application 
which  bears  the  next  official  number  to  the  aforenamed 
specification,  and  in  this  specification,  which  is  entitled 
"  Roller  mandrels,"  he  describes  means  for  effecting  the 


FIG.  71. 


FIG.  73. 


positive  driving  of  the  rolls  mounted  on  the  mandrels.  The 
illustrations  at  figs.  65  to  73  inclusive  are  selected  from 
the  drawings  accompanying  this  specification  No.  6494,  of 
1888.  The  object  of  employing  such  rolls  is,  of  course,  to 
reduce  the  friction  between  the  interior  surface  of  the  tube 
and  the  ball  or  head  of  the  ordinary  mandrel,  and  thus  to 
permit  of  the  more  ready  passage  of  the  tube  over  the 
mandrel  and  withdrawal  of  the  mandrel  from  the  tube.  Idle 
rolls  had  been  previously  employed  by  the  inventor,  and  he 
refers  to  several  prior  United  States  patents  for  the  better 
appreciation  of  this  invention,  of  which  the  object  "is  to 
provide  means  for  positively  driving  the  mandrel  rolls,  so  as 
to  render  them  no  longer  idle  rolls,  the  movement  of  which 
is  wholly  due  to  the  movement  of  the  tube  upon  them,  but 
positively-driven  rolls  which  move  under  the  thrust  or 
impulse  of  suitable  actuating  devices,  with  a  positive  rotative 

6ST 


66 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


motion,  which  is  the  same  as,  or  greater,  or  less,  than  that 
of  the  tube  operated  upon." 


Fig.  65  is  a  top-plan  view  of  a  mandrel  having  two  rolls, 
the  axes  of  which  lie  in  the  same  plane.     Fig.  66  is  a  trans- 


Fio.    74. 


verse  vertical  sectional  elevation  through  the  mandrel  of  fig. 
65  in  the  plane  of  the  dotted  line  a  b  of  said  figure.  Fig.  67  is 
an  end  elevation  of  a  convenient  form  of  operating  mechanism 


IRON   AND    STEEL   TUBES. 


67 


for  the  driving  gearing  of  the  mandrel  rolls  shown  at  figs.  65 
and  66.  Each  roll  is  provided  with  sunken  wheel  teeth 
extending  around  the  central  circumference  and  which  gear 
into  the  double  rack  C.  The  rack  engages  between  two 
toothed  wheels  D,  D1,  fig.  67,  which  are  driven  from  the 
pulley  E.  Fig.  68  is  a  top-plan  view  of  a  mandrel  having 
two  rolls,  the  axes  of  which,  although  in  parallel  horizontal 


FIG.  75. 

planes,  are  inclined  to  one  another ;  and  fig.  69  is  a  front 
elevation  with  part  section.  The  double  actuating  rack  in 
this  case  has  teeth  of  a  spiral  form  corresponding  with  the 
respective  inclinations  of  the  roll  teeth. 

Figs.  70  and  71  are  transverse  vertical  sectional  elevations 
through  mandrels  having  three  rolls,  which  are  adapted  to 
be  actuated  by  driving  gear  constituted  by  racks  of  different 


68 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


form,  and  figs.  72  and  73  a  convenient  arrangement  of  the 
driving  mechanism.     This  patent  became  void  in  1892. 

A  combination  comprising  a  stationary  mandrel  with  a 
revolving  die  is  illustrated  in  figs.  74  and  75,  prepared  from 
the  specification  No.  9560,  of  1884,  of  Joseph  Short,  of 
Birmingham,  for  "An  improved  apparatus  for  drawing  tubes 
arid  bars."  The  machine,  as  illustrated,  is  for  the  purpose 
of  "  drawing,  compressing,  and  reducing  the  diameters  and 


FJG.  76. 

the  thickness  or  substance  of  steel,  iron,  and  other  metallic 
tubes,  bars,  or  shafting."  The  die  A  is  keyed  or  otherwise 
secured  within  the  socket  B,  formed  with  the  worm  wheel 
C.  This  wheel  and  socket  revolve  in  the  standard  of  the 
machine,  friction  rollers  as  D  being  arranged  to  receive  the 
thrust  during  the  drawing  of  the  tubes.  The  mandrel  E  is 
stationary,  but  the  tube  F  has  a  longitudinal  movement 
imparted  to  it  in  the  direction  of  the  arrow  as  the  die  is 
revolved.  The  die  A  may  be  provided  with  two  or  more 
bulbs,  and  thus  two  or  more  drawing  operations  may  be 
effected  simultaneously.  This  patent  became  void  in  1894. 


IRON  AND    STEEL  TUBES. 


69 


Iii  the  specification  No.  10796,  of  1887,  of  Edward  Cope 
and  Alfred  Rollings,  of  Manchester,  there  is  described  a 
machine  for  expanding  steel  tubes  by  subjecting  the  metal 
to  a  rolling  or  squeezing  action  around  its  longitudinal 
axis,  with  a  revolving  tube  expander  on  the  interior,  and 
revolving  rolls  on  the  exterior  of  the  tube.  Fig.  76  is  a 
vertical  section,  and  fig.  77  an  end  view  of  the  machine. 


The  sleeve  A,  with  central  cheeks  B,  is  mounted  in  bearings, 
and  driven  through  the  pulley  C.  The  outside  rollers  D  are 
carried  in  bearings  free  to  slide  to  and  from  the  centre  of 
the  sleeve,  and  such  bearings  are  connected  by  rods  to 
weights  E,  the  bearings  on  the  one  side  being  connected  to 
the  weight  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  sleeve.  The  weights 
are  also  connected  to  the  sliding  collar  F  in  order  that  they 
can  be  adjusted  if  necessary.  The  expanding  mandrel  on 


70  THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 

the  interior  of  the  tube  G  is  fitted  with  rollers  as  illustrated. 
The  centrifugal  action  of  the  weights  E  of  the  external 
rolls  D  cause  the  said  rolls  to  act  on  the  outside  of  the  tube, 
and  by  the  combined  action  on  the  inner  and  outer  surfaces 
the  internal  and  external  diameters  of  the  tube  will  be 
increased  without  material  elono-ation. 


CHAPTER  VII. 

ROBERTSON  PROCESSES.     EHRHARDT  PROCESSES. 

JAMES  ROBERTSON*  (the  inventor  of  the  frictional  gearing 
bearing  his  name)  has  obtained  several  patents  relating  to 
the  manufacture  of  seamless  steel  and  other  tubes.  His 
specification  No.  5018,  of  1888,  describes  the  production  of 
seamless  metal  tubes  from  billets  of  metal  in  a  hot  or  viscid 
state,  by  the  "  squirting "  of  the  metal  through  a  die  and 
over  a  mandrel.  Mr.  Robertson  states  in  his  specification 
that  it  is  no  part  of  his  invention  to  use  any  of  his  "  new 
and  improved  modes  and  means  or  apparatus  for  making 
tubes  out  of  what  are  usually  designated  soft  metals  such  as 
lead  and  tin."  The  apparatus  consists  primarily  of  a  fixed 
die  and  a  mandrel.  The  billet  is  placed  in  the  die  and 
whilst  therein  a  mandrel  is  forced  through  the  centre  of 
it.  The  die  is  so  shaped  that  the  metal  is  not  forced 
through  it  by  the  action  of  the  mandrel,  but  is  squirted  back 
over  the  mandrel ;  thus  the  mandrel  and  the  tube  move  in 
reverse  directions.  For  the  purpose  of  preventing  the 
metal  from  being  forced  through  the  die  in  advance  of  the 
mandrel,  a  holdingrup  or  regulating  hydraulic  stem  is 
employed  to  retain  the  metal  in  the  die  whilst  it  is  sub- 
mitted to  the  action  of  the  mandrel.  The  dies  are  some- 
times made  in  segments,  and  two  mandrels  may  be 
employed ;  various  other  modifications  are  described  in  the 
specification  and  illustrated  by  drawings.  Revolving  dies 
may  be  employed  and  arrangements  made  for  the  applica- 
tion of  a  centrifugal  force  to  the  mass  of  metal  to  be 
operated  upon. 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


71 


Robertson's  specification  No.  1627,  1890,  sets  forth  an 
invention  which  is  described  as  consisting  chiefly  of  a 
further  development  of  that  described  in  the  previously 
named  specification  (No.  5018,  of  1888),  the  development 
consisting  "mainly  in  new  and  improved  means  and 


apparatus    for     operating, 


and     drawing    tube 


FIG.  78. 


mandrels  and  dies  on  billets  or  tube  blanks,  made  soft  by 
heat,  and  placed  in  long  tube  dies  having  forming  bores  or 
seats  in  conjunction  with  a  holding-up  stem."  The  chief 
feature  of  the  invention  is  the  use  of  a  sliding  die  in 
combination  with  a  mandrel  and  holding-up  stem,  the 
mandrel  being  forced  into  the  billet  in  one  direction,  thus 
causing,  in  conjunction  with  the  holding-up  stem,  the  metal 


FIG.  79. 

to  be  squirted  out  in  the  opposite  direction.  The  object 
of  the  sliding  die  is  to  "  relieve  the  mandrel  from  being 
packed  or  stuck  up  in  the  metal,  and  render  it  easily 
practicable  to  form  a  solid  billet  of  metal  into  a  tube,  or  to 
draw  out  a  tube  blank  in  this  way."  The  sliding  movement 
of  the  die  is  effected  in  several  ways,  the  simplest  being][to 


72 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


allow  the  die,  under  its  frictional  contact  with  the  tube  or 
metal,  to  travel  with  such  tube  in  a  direction  opposite  to 
that  of  the  mandrel.  This  patent  is  still  in  force. 

The  illustrations  from  figs.  78  to  83  are  from  Robertson's 
specification  No.  11436,  of  1891.  This  invention  is  described 
as  consisting  mainly  in  new  and  improved  means  and 
apparatus  for  fixing  and  operating  the  dies,  matrices, 
mandrels  and  metal  billets  during  the  shaping  operation, 
and  new  and  improved  means  and  apparatus  for  expelling 
the  articles  so  formed,  and  also  for  quickly  cooling  the 


FIG.  SO. 


matrices,  dies,  mandrels,  or  shaping  tools  by  injecting  water 
or  other  fluid  at  a  high  pressure.  The  apparatus  in  its 
primary  form  comprises  a  die,  a  piercing  mandrel,  and  a 
holding-up  stem  or  ram,  such  as  described  in  the  previous 
specification,  the  billet  to  be  operated  upon  being  interposed 
between  the  mandrel  and  the  holding-up  stem.  The 
holding-up  stem  itself  is  not  in  direct  contact  with  the 
billet,  a  holding-up  ferrule  being  disposed  between  the 
stem  and  the  billet  for  receiving  the  mandrel  after  it  is 
forced  through  the  billet.  A  "  service  plate  "  is  placed  over 
the  billet  end  of  the  holding-up  stem  ;  such  plate  offers 
sufficient  resistance  to  the  pressure  of  the  metal  under  the 
action  of  the  mandrel  to  prevent  it  from  flowing  into  the 


IRON  AND    STEEL  TUBES. 


73 


ferrule,  but  will  give  way  or  be  shorn  through  when  the 
mandrel  reaches  the  end  of  the  billet.  In  the  sectional  plan 
at  fig.  78,  A  is  the  die  (made  in  two  halves),  and  B  the  billet 
shown  nearly  pierced  through  by  the  mandrel  C.  D  is  the 


Fiu.   81. 


holding-up  ferrule  piece  and  E  the  service  plate.  Fig.  79 
shows  the  position  of  the  mandrel  after  it  has  been  wholly 
forced  through  the  billet,  with  the  service  plate  E  shorn 
away ;  at  this  position  the  piercing  operation  of  the 


Fin.  82. 


mandrel  is  completed,  and  its  forward  motion  stopped.  The 
cooling  of  the  tools  and  the  expulsion  of  the  tube  is 
effected  by  admitting  water  at  a  high  pressure  through  the 
connection  F  in  the  after-holding  stem  G. 


74 


THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 


In  the  arrangement  indicated  at  fig.  80  a  billet  of  hot 
metal  is  shown  in  the  die  A,  and  a  mandrel  C  inserted  in 
same  held  centrally  on  the  hot  metal  by  the  guide  G, 
all  in  a  state  ready  for  the  forcing  of  the  mandrel  into  the 
billet.  Fig.  81  illustrates  the  completion  of  the  stroke  of 
the  mandrel.  Figs.  82  and  83  represent  another  modification. 
This  patent  is  still  in  force. 

James  Robertson's  specification  No.  19356,  of  1893> 
describes  an  invention  which  "relates  mainly  to  the  drawing 
of  metal  rods,  bars,  tubes,  wires,  &c.,  through  dies,  in  a  cold 
state,  and  consists  mainly  in  placing  such  rods,  tubes,  or  the 
like,  in  a  closed  vessel  or  container,  and  pressing,  lubricating, 
and  propelling  them  through  dies  or  shaping  and  drawing 


tools,  by  the  direct  contact  of  a  liquid  in  motion  and  under 
a  degree  of  pressure."  Various  modifications  of  such  im- 
proved hydraulic  machines  are  set  forth  in  the  specification. 
The  inventor  also  states  that  it  is  a  part  of  his  invention  "to 
use  the  propelling  liquid  at  such  a  degree  of  pressure  above 
the  resisting  strength  to  crushing  action  of  the  metal  articles 
being  operated  upon,  as  to  become  what  I  shall  term  a 
hydraulic  die  suited  for  compressing,  drawing,  and  treating 
metal  tubes,  tubular  and  hollow  articles,  rods,  bars,  wires, 
and  plates.  Unless  in  conjunction  with  steel  or  very  hard 
dies,  or  with  mandrels,  this  hydraulic  die  has  little  tendency 
to  smooth  or  improve  the  uniformity  of  the  diameter  of  the 
tube  blank  operated  upon,  but  has  a  greater  tendency  than 
an  ordinary  die  to  improve  the  uniformity  of  thickness 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES.  7O- 

or  gauge  of  a  tube  subjected  to  its  action  circumferen- 
tially."  "There  is  not  much  drawing  or  pressing  effect 
obtainable  from  a  hydraulic  die  unless  the  propelling  or 
surrounding  liquid  is  used  at  about  one-half  greater  pressure 
than  is  required  to  partially  crush  the  metal  it  is  made  to 
surround  and  draw.  Take,  for  example,  the  most  prominent 
metal  to  be  dealt  with  in  drawing  tubes,  which  is  steel,  the 
crushing  weight  of  which  is,  say,  20  tons  per  square  inch, 
then  one-half  more  margin  of  pressure  to  produce  the 
requisite  compressing,  squirting,  or  drawing  effect ;  or,  say, 
30  tons  per  square  inch.  This  great  end  pressure  in  a  die  of 


FIG.   84. 

large  internal  cross  area  produces  more  end  pressure  than 
the  best  ordinary  steel  dies  are  usually  found  to  stand  against 
abrasion  and  expansion;  but  take  a  die  of  only  l^in. 
internal  diameter,  which  is  equal  only  to  one  square  inch, 
and  when  placed  in  a  suitable  container  (as  described  in  the 
specification)  with  the  propelling  liquid,  used  at  the  neces- 
sary drawing  pressure  of  30  tons  per  square  inch,  the 
propelling  effect  on  end  is  only  SO  tons,  or  just  about  the 
requisite  degree  of  force  that  this  size  of  ordinary  steel 
drawing  die  will  stand."  This  patent  is  still  in  force. 

The  Ehrhardt  process  of  manufacturing  weldless  steel 
tubes  has  received  considerable  attention  from  manufacturers 
and  others  interested  in  the  production  of  steel  tubes,  and  at 
the  time  of  writing  (in  the  year  1897)  the  public  are  invited 


76 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


to  subscribe  to  a  company  termed  the  Universal  Weldless 
Steel  Tubes  Company  (Ehrhardt's  Process)  Limited,  formed 
for  the  purpose  of  manufacturing  in  the  United  Kingdom 
weldless  steel  tubes  by  the  Ehrhardt  process  with  special 
machines  to  be  supplied  by  Ehrhardt.  The  prospectus 
states  that  the  process  is  for  the  "manufacture  of  weldless 
tubes  for  marine  and  all  other  water-tube  boilers,  weldless 


FIG.  87. 

tubes  for  steam,  gas,  and  hydraulic  pipes,  cycle  tubes,  and 
all  tubes  of  a  variety  of  sizes  and  sections,  and  other  hollow 
forged  articles."  It  is  also  stated  that  Sir  W.  Armstrong, 
Whit  worth,  and  Co.  Limited  have  purchased  the  exclusive 
right  to  use  Ehrhardt's  process  in  the  manufacture  of  gun 
liners,  shells  and  other  war  materials. 

In  1891  Henrich  Ehrhardt,  of  Diisseldorf,  Germany,  filed 
his  specification  No.  3116,  of  1891,  for  "Improvements  in 
forging  and  shaping  iron  and  steel  blocks,"  described  as  an 


FIG.  86. 

invention  relating  to  "  a  new  method  of  simultaneously 
punching  and  shaping  iron  and  steel  blocks  in  red-hot  or  white 
glowing  state."  The  illustrations,  figs.  84  to  91  inclusive, 
are  from  the  drawings  accompanying  the  specification.  "  To 
produce  a  hollow  cylinder  from  wrought  iron  or  steel,  a 
piece  of  square  iron  or  steel  is  taken,  the  cross-section  of 
which,  diagonally  measured,  corresponds  to  the  diameter  of 


IRON   AND    STEEL  TUBES.  77 

the  hollow  cylinder  to  be  produced.  The  said  piece  of 
square  iron  or  steel  A,  when  in  a  red-hot  or  white  glowing 
state,  is  delivered  into  the  matrix  B,  the  inner  space  of 
which  also  corresponds  to  the  shape  of  the  hollow  cylinder  to 
be  produced,  and  a  pointed  core  bar  C  is  then  driven  into 
the  metal  by  means  of  a  hammer  or  press,  whilst  the  lid  D  is- 


FIG.  88. 

used  as  a  guide  for  the  said  core  bar.  The  diameter  of  the 
latter  is  chosen  so  that  the  material  forced  aside  by  it  is 
sufficient  to  fill  the  four  segment-shaped  spaces  between  the 
square  sides  of  the  block  and  the  interior  surface  of  the 
matrix.  The  core  bar  enters  the  metal  without  any  difficulty, 
as  the  metal  whilst  being  forced  away  can  give  way  at 
its  sides,  and  a  hollow  cylinder  with  closed  bottom,  as. 
represented  at  figs.  86  and  87,  is  produced." 


FIG.  89. 

"  For  manufacturing  hollow  bodies  of  somewhat  greater 
length,  two  core  bars  instead  of  one  may  be  employed,  and 
they  may  be  pressed  into  the  metal  from  both  sides  as 
illustrated  at  fig.  88." 

"  Blocks  of  irregular  sections  may  be  punched  and  shaped 
in  quite  the  same  way,  there  being,  however,  the  condition 
that  the  piece  of  metal  be  centred  by  the  matrix,  and  that 


78  THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 

sufficient  space  be  left  for  receiving  the  material  pressed 
away  by  said  core  bar  or  bars.  The  latter  may  be  of  any 
regular  or  irregular  cross-section,  for  instance,  of  oval  shape, 
as  shown  in  figs.  89,  90,  and  91." 

"  For  better  securing  the  guiding  and  contact  of  the 
metal  piece,  and  for  farthering  the  swell  of  its  free  surfaces, 
those  parts  of  the  matrix  which  are  touched  by  the  edges  of 
the  metal  piece  may  be  provided  with  a  cooling  device." 
Thus  in  figs.  89,  90,  and  91  spaces  for  containing  water  are 
provided  as  illustrated.  This  patent  is  in  force. 

Ehrdardt's  specification  No.  7497,  of  1892,  is  for  a 
"Process  and  apparatus  for  the  manufacture  of  tubular 
bodies."  In  the  opening  clause  of  this  specification  the 

FIG.  90. 


FIG.  91. 

inventor  states:  "In  the  specification  to  patent  3116,  of 
1891,  was  described  a  process  for  the  manufacture  of  hollow 
bodies,  according  to  which  heated  iron  or  steel  bars  had  a 
longitudinal  passage  formed  through  them  by  means  of  a  die 
and  mandrel."  The  patentee  then  states  that  "  according  to 
one  part  of  the  present  invention,  in  order  to  prevent  in  the 
said  process  the  metal  blank  operated  upon  from  being  com- 
pressed longitudinally  by  the  driving  in  of  the  mandrel,  the 
arrangement  shown  at  the  figs.  92  to  95  inclusive  is 
employed."  "A  is  the  perforating  and  pressing  mandrel  of 
circular  cross-section ;  B  is  a  die  with  a  cylindrical  cavity ; 
and  C  the  rod  or  blank  to  be  operated  upon,  which  is  of  a 
square  cross-section.  D,  in  figs.  92  and  93,  is  a  preparatory 
pressing  mandrel,  which,  as  shown  at  fig.  93,  forms  a  collar 
on  the  end  of  the  heated  blank.  The  preparatory  mandrel 


IRON   AND    STEEL  TUBES. 


79 


is  removed  after  the  formation  of  such  collar,  and  the  blank 
then  has  a  hole  formed  through  it  by  the  mandrel  A,  as 
shown  at  figs.  94  and  95,  while  at  the  same  time  it  is  pressed 
into  the  die  B  so  as  to  assume  its  configuration.  During 
this  operation  the  collar  previously  formed  prevents  any 
pressing  together  in  the  longitudinal  direction  of  the  formed 
tube,  as  in  the  first  instance  it  takes  an  abutment  on  the 
upper  end  of  the  die,  and  during  the  finishing  of  the 
operation  it  is  gradually  drawn  into  the  die  by  the  pressure 


FIG.  92. 


FIG.  93. 


of  the  mandrel,  as  shown  at  fig.  95.  At  the  lower  end  of  the 
die  is  a  sliding  block  E,  which,  in  the  position  shown  at  figs. 
92  and  93  when  the  preliminary  mandrel  is  operating,  serves 
as  a  support  to  the  lower  end  of  the  blank.  After  this 
operation  the  sliding  block  is  pushed  forward  until  a  recess 
F  formed  therein  is  situated  under  the  hole  of  the  die.  The 
recess  F  serves  to  form  a  nipple  on  the  end  of  the  tubular 
body  during  the  finishing  operation  (as  shown  at  fig.  95), 
which  nipple  is  required  for  the  further  treatment  of  the 
tubular  body." 


80 


THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 


"  As  shown  in  fig.  92  the  circular  hollow  of  the  die  con- 
stitutes the  circumscribed  circle  of  the  rectangular  section  of 
the  blank,  so  that  the  die  brings  the  blank  at  once  into  the 
central  position  when  it  is  inserted.  The  cross-section  of 
the  mandrel  or  plunger  is  made  of  such  a  size  that  the 
material  of  the  blank  which  it  displaces  when  forced  in  fills 
out  the  spaces  left  between  the  rectangular  sides  of  the  blank 
and  the  circular  wall  of  the  die.  On  pressing,  such  an 
amount  of  friction  is  produced  against  the  walls  of  the  die 
that  only  a  slight  longitudinal  compression  is  effected  even 
when  the  above-described  collar  is  not  made  to  bear  against 
the  die.  The  friction  against  the  walls  of  the  die  can  be 
increased  by  roughing  it  with  file  cuts  or  by  forming  grooves 
therein ;  but  the  die  would  then  require  to  be  divided 
longitudinally  in  order  to  remove  the  finished  article." 


FIG.  94. 


FIG.  95. 


Tubular  bodies  can  also  be  formed  out  of  bars  or  blanks  of 
a  circular  section ;  the  process  is  described  and  illustrated 
in  the  specification. 

"  In  the  foregoing  description  the  production  of  the  hollow 
body  by  the  driving  in  of  a  mandrel  has  been  described. 
Such  driving  in  of  the  mandrel  can,  however,  be  utilised 
when  using  suitable  devices  therewith  for  producing  a 
simultaneous  rolling  and  drawing  of  the  tubular  body.  Fig. 


IRON  AND    STEEL  TUBES. 


81 


96  is  a  sectional  plan  illustrating  the  apparatus  for  carrying 
out  this  extended  process.  The  mandrel  G,  having  the  same 
cross-section  as  that  of  the  blank  to  be  operated  upon,  is 
connected  to  the  piston  or  plunger  of  a  hydraulic  press. 
The  blank  H  which  has  been  introduced  into  the  die  K  is 
conveyed  by  the  mandrel  G  to  the  die  L,  into  which  projects 

N     <- 


FIG.  96. 


the  mandrel  M,  towards  the  rollers  N  N1.  If,  therefore, 
after  the  perforation  has  commenced  in  the  die  L  K,  the 
blank  is  forced  farther  forward  by  the  plunger  G,  it  will  be 
fed  over  the  mandrel  M  towards  the  rollers  N  N1,  and  these 
being  at  the  same  time  rotated  by  suitable  gearing  at  a 


FIG.  97. 

quicker  surface  speed  than  that  of  the  plunger  G,  they  will 
exercise  a  drawing  action  on  the  blank  H.  The  rollers 
N  N1  are  driven  and  their  speed  regulated  by  spur  gearing, 
which  is  rotated  by  means  of  toothed  racks  actuated  by  the 
piston  of  the  hydraulic  cylinder.  Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  by 
a  continued  pressing  and  drawing  operation  the  object  acted 
upon  is  simultaneously  perforated,  drawn,  and  rolled." 

Fig.  97  illustrates  another  construction  of  apparatus  for 


producing  hollow  bodies. 

7ST 


In  this  modification  the  die  K1  is 


82 


THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 


caused  to  slide  along  the  tie  rods  P  P1,  and  thus  at  the  com- 
pletion of  the  pressing  operation  the  perforated  article  will 
be  situated  outside  the  die.  The  movement  of  the  die  is 
produced  by  the  advance  of  the  rods  R  R1,  secured  to  the 
crosshead  of  the  piston  or  plunger  rod. 


Fio    98. 


Fig.  98  is  a  longitudinal  section  of  an  apparatus  for 
drawing  to  the  required  section  immediately  after  the 
formation  of  the  hollow  body  and  during  the  same  heat. 
The  heated  iron  or  steel  bar,  or  blank,  is  placed  in  the 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES.  83 

die  B,  and  is  there  perforated  in  the  described  manner.  The 
bottom  of  the  die  is  formed  by  a  slide  S,  which  is  moved  in 
the  die  B  by  a  screw  spindle  and  hand  wheel,  or  by  other 
suitable  means.  Below  the  die  are  situated,  in  the  same 
axM  line,  draw  rings,  as  D  D1,  D2,  of  gradually  decreasing 
diameter.  The  apparatus  worka  as  follows  :  After  the  die  B 
has  been  closed  at  the  bottom  by  the  screw  S,  the  metal 
blank  A  in  the  die  is  perforated  as  described.  When  the 
mandrel  C,  which  is  actuated  by  a  hydraulic  cylinder  or 
other  suitable  means,  has  been  forced  to  the  required  depth 
into  the  material,  the  pressure  on  the  mandrel  is  reduced,  in 
order  to  enable  the  slide  S  to  be  withdrawn.  After  such 
withdrawal  of  the  slide,  the  mandrel  C  is  moved  downward 
together  with  the  tubular  body,  and  passes  together  with 
the  latter  successively  through  the  drawing  rings  D  D1,  D2 
until  the  tubular  body  has  acquired  the  requisite  thickness. 
Below  the  last  ring  is  placed  a  block  E,  with  a  suitable 
hollow  for  imparting  to  the  end  of  the  body,  in  the  event  of 
this  requiring  to  be  closed,  the  requisite  configuration  by 
compressing  the  same  between  the  said  hollow  of  the  block  E 
and  correspondingly  formed  end  of  the  mandrel  C.  This 
patent  is  in  force. 

Later   particulars   relating   to    Robertson   and  Ehrhardt 
processes  will  be  found  in  Chapter  VIII.  of  this  edition. 


CHAPTER   VIII. 

THE  PIERCING  OF  SOLID  STEEL  BILLETS. 

THE  manufacturer  of  seamless  brass  and  like  tubes  has  not 
to  encounter  the  trouble  experienced  by  the  manufacturer  of 
steel  tubes  in  the  initial  conversion  of  a  solid  into  a  hollow 
body.  Working  with  a  metal  of  which  a  chief  characteristic 
is  its  facility  for  the  production  of  thoroughly  sound  castings, 
the  brass  tube  manufacturer  has  but  to  cast  a  number  of 
shells,  or  short  thick  tubes  or  cylinders,  and  proceed  by 
rolling  and  drawing  operations  to  extend  them  in  length 


84  THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 

and  reduce  them  in  thickness  to  form  tubes  of  the  required 
dimensions.  The  steel  tube  manufacturer  is  unable  to  pro- 
duce the  shells  or  hollow  blooms  which  constitute  his 
embryonic  tubes  in  so  ready  and  convenient  a  manner. 

To  obtain  weldless  steel  tubes  suitable  for  use  in  water 
tube  or  tubulous  boilers,  in  the  construction  of  cycle  frames, 
and  for  other  services  the  manufacturer  must  perforce  start 
his  operations  upon  a  solid  billet  produced  by  the  subjection 
of  the  original  cast  ingot  to  carefully  conducted  forging  or 
rolling  operations.  The  formation  of  the  initial  bore  whereby 
the  solid  billet  is  converted  into  a  hollow  bloom  presents 
difficulties  that  have  attracted  the  attention  of  many 
inventors.  To  drill  right  through  the  billet  either  from  end 
to  end,  or  from  both  ends  by  tools  working  towards  each 
other,  is  a  slow  and  expensive  process  and  involves  waste  of 
metal.  But  it  has  been  urged,  and  with  considerable  reason, 
that  as  there  is  a  generally  recognised  advantage  in  removing 
a  considerable  amount  of  the  top  or  dead  head  of  an  ingot  or 
casting,  so  also,  as,  in  the  words  of  Mr.  Alex.  E.  Tucker, 
F.I.C.,  of  Birmingham,  the  "  chemical  defects,  cracks,  and 
segregated  impurities  tend  towards  the  middle  and  top  of  an 
ingot,  the  advantage  obtained  by  drilling  out  the  centre  of 
the  rolled  bloom  (billet)  will  be  apparent.  The  result  of 
drifting,  punching,  or  spinning  out  a  hole  instead  of  drilling 
it  out  of  the  bloom  (billet),  in  which  latter  case  alone  the 
core  is  removed,  must  be  a  higher  percentage  of  defectives, 
at  all  events  on  the  inside  surfaces,  than  when  such  core  is 
taken  out." 

In  some  billet  piercing  processes,  of  which  the  Mannesmann 
and  Stiefel  are  well  known  instances,  the  billet,  by  means  of 
rolls  or  discs,  is  rapidly  rotated  and  simultaneously  forced  on 
to  and  over  a  mandrel,  whereby  it  is  pierced  from  end  to 
end,  the  metal  displaced  from  the  centre  serving  to  increase 
the  length  of  the  resultant  bloom,  tube  use,  or  shell.  The 
first,  or  the  1885  Mannesmann  British  patent  (No.  1,167), 
expired  at  the  end  of  the  full  14  years'  term  in  the  year 
1899,  and  the  1886  patent  (No.  9,939)— which  is  described 
as  for  an  improvement  on  the  former  patent  or  patented  in- 
vention— in  the  year  1900.  In  the  original  specification  of 
the  1886  patent  R.  and  M.  Mannesmann  stated  that  their 


IRON   AND   STEEL  TUBES.  85 

process  consisted  "  mainly  in  working  upon  the  outside  of  a 
solid  blank  by  external  rolls  or  rollers  in  such  a  manner  that 
the  blank  assumes  a  tubular  shape,  either  no  core  or  mandrel 
being  employed  in  such  cases,  or  else  a  core  or  mandrel  being 
employed  for  the  purpose  of  smoothing  the  inside  of  the  pipe 
or  tube  thus  formed,  reducing  the  thickness  of  its  sides  or 
shell  and  enlarging  its  internal  diameter."  In  the  drawings 
accompanying  their  specification  they  give  illustrations 
showing  how  by  their  process  they  could  roll  an  axle  so  that 
it  should  be  hollow  throughout  the  greater  part  of  its  length 
but  solid  at  the  ends  and  also,  if  desired,  at  intermediate 
parts.  But  it  was  difficult  to  understand  that  the  process 
could  be  relied  upon  to  produce  such  axles,  and  that  tubes 
could  be  produced  on  a  useful  or  commercial  scale  without 
the  employment  of  a  piercing  mandrel.  In  1898,  about  two 
years  before  the  expiration  of  the  aforesaid  British  patent, 
steel  tube  manufacturers  throughout  the  country  were  much 
interested  in  the  formal  application  of  the  proprietors  for 
leave  (which  was  granted)  to  amend  their  specification  by 
striking  out  the  statement  concerning  the  production  of 
tubes  without  the  employment  of  a  core  or  mandrel,  and  by 
abandoning  the  greater  portion  of  the  drawings,  including 
those  of  the  hollow  axles,  and  deleting  the  descriptive  matter 
and  claims  relating  thereto. 

Since  his  well  known  patent  No.  23,702,  of  1895,  R.  C. 
Stiefel  has  filed  applications  and  obtained  patents  for  other 
inventions  relating  to  the  piercing  of  solid  ingots,  billets  or 
blanks.  The  adjoining  illustration,  fig.  99,  is  from  his 
specification  No.  30,449,  of  1897,  setting  forth  an  invention 
of  which  the  object  is  stated  as  the  piercing  of  solid  blanks 
or  billets  longitudinally  "  by  passing  them  endwise  between 
rolling  surfaces  and  over  the  point  of  a  mandrel  lying  in  the 
pass  between  them,  the  rolling  surfaces  compressing  and 
slightly  reducing  the  diameter  of  the  blanks  without  twisting 
or  disturbing  the  longitudinal  arrangement  of  their  fibres 
and  without  there  being  any  slip  between  the  rolling  surfaces 
and  those  portions  of  the  blanks  with  which  they  come  into 
contact." 

The  conical  rolls  A  and  B  rotate  in  the  same  direction  as 
indicated  by  the  arrows  thereon  ;  their  axes  and  the  lines  of 


86 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


their  working  sides  all  converge  towards  and  intersect  a, 
common  point  C  on  the  axial  line  of  the  pass.  The  rolls 
in  the  example  shown  by  fig.  99  impart  only  a  rotary 
motion  to  the  billet  D,  the  endwise  movement,  whereby 
the  billet  is  forced  on  to  and  over  the  piercing  mandrel, 
is  imparted  by  a  hydraulic  ram  E  or  by  other  means. 
The  patentee  says  : — "  If  the  rolls  were  cylindrical  or 
of  uniform  diameter  they  would  of  necessity  impart  a 
higher  speed  of  rotation  to  that  portion  of  the  billet  within 
their  £rip  which  has  the  smaller  diameter,  than  to  the 
portion  having  the  larger  diameter ;  and  this  would  result  in 
a  twisting  of  the  billet.  With  my  conical  rolls  arranged  as 


Fio.  99. 

shown,  there  is  absolutely  no  twist  imparted  by  the  rolls  to 
the  billet,  and  no  slip  between  the  contracting  surfaces  of 
the  rolls  and  the  billet,  for  while  the  converging  sides  of  the 
pass  cause  a  gradual  diminishing  of  the  diameter  of  the 
billet  it  will  be  observed  that  the  diameters  of  the  rolls 
diminish  progressively  in  the  same  ratio  as  the  diameters  of 
the  billet  decrease,  the  larger  diameter  of  the  billet  being 
gripped  by  large  diameters  of  the  rolls,  whilst  the  smaller 
diameters  of  the  billet  are  gripped  by  proportionately  smaller 
diameters  of  the  rolls,  so  that  an  absolutely  uniform  speed 
of  rotation  is  imparted  to  every  portion  of  the  billet  within 
the  grip  of  the  rolls.  This  I  regard  as  a  most  important 
feature  of  my  invention,  and  it  is  the  result  of  causing  the 


IRON   AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


87 


axes  of  both  rolls  and  the  lines  of  their  working  surfaces  to 
converge  to  a  common  point  on  the  axial  line  of  the  pass. 
So  far  as  I  am  aware,  this  has  never  been  done  before,  and  I 
know  of  no  device  with  rolls  having  a  tapering  or  converging 
pass  between  them  in  which  there  is  not  some  twist  imparted 
to  the  billet,  or  some  slip  between  the  billet  and  the  working- 
faces  of  the  rolls  or  both." 

In  the  example  shown  at  fig.  100  "the  rolls  are  oppositely 
inclined  relatively  to  the  axis  of  the  pass,  so  that  the  rolls 
themselves  will  cause  th.3  endwise  movement  of  the  billet 


FIG.  100. 

without  the  aid  of  a  hydraulic  ram  or  other  mechanical 
appliance  to  force  the  billet  through  the  pass  and  over  the 
head  of  the  mandrel." 

In  Stiefel's  specification,  No.  611,  of  1898,  discs  are 
employed  instead  of  the  rolls  described  in  the  aforesaid 
specification  of  1897. 

Concurrently  with  the  1897  specification  of  Stiefel,  a 
specification  of  another  inventor  (J,  A.  Charnock)  was 
passing  through  the  British  Patent  Office.  Charnock's 
application  was  filed  before  that  of  Stiefel,  and  is  numbered 
14001  of  the  year  1897.  Fig.  101  is  from  one  of  the  illustra- 
tions accompanying  Charnock's  specification,  the  opening 
clause  of  which  is  as  follows : — "  This  invention  relates  to 
apparatus  for  rolling  tubes  of  the  kind  described  in  the 
specification  of  letters  patent  granted  to  Ralph  Charles 


88 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


Stiefel,  No.  23702,  of  1895,  and  has  for  its  object  to  roll  or 
draw  out  metallic  ingots  or  blanks  in  a  heated  state  without 
subjecting  the  metal  to  torsional  strain  or  materially 
disturbing  the  longitudinal  arrangement  of  the  fibres.  The 
mechanism  comprises  a  pair  of  rolls  or  a  roll  and  a  disc 
working  in  conjunction  with  a  mandrel  located  in  the  pass 
between  the  rolls  or  between  the  disc  and  the  roll." 


Fro.  101. 

The  rolls  A  and  B,  which  are  driven  in  the  direction 
indicated  by  the  arrows,  each  have  two  peripheral  working 
surfaces,  a  a!  and  6  6'  respectively,  in  the  form  of  frustra  of 
cones.  "  In  the  case  of  the  roll  B  the  two  frustra  forming 
the  working  surfaces  b  b'  have  a  common  base,  and  the 
apices  of  the  cones  would  lie  one  on  each  side  of  the  roll. 
In  the  roll  A,  however,  the  smaller  diameter  of  the  frustrum 
formed  by  the  working  surface  a  constitutes  the  larger 
diameter  of  the  other  frustrum  formed  by  the  working 
surface  a',  that  is  to  say,  the  apices  of  both  cones  would  lie 


IEON   AND    STEEL   TUBES. 


89 


on  one  side  of  the  roll."  The  motion  of  the  billet  C  is  both 
rotary  and  longitudinal,  since  the  rolls  A  and  B  resolve  in 
the  same  direction  and  have  their  axes  set  at  such  angles  to 
the  axis  of  the  pass  that  the  billet  is  fed  forward  by  the  rolls, 
which  grip  it  firmly  owing  to  the  tapering  of  the  pass.  "  The 
length  of  the  surfaces  a'  and  b'  is  preferably  equal  to,  or 
slightly  greater  than,  the  length  of  the  conical  portion  of  the 
mandrel  D,  and  these  surfaces  are  so  shaped  relatively  to 


FIG.  102. 


this  part  that  they  continue  to  act  upon  the  billet  C  after  it 
has  been  pierced,  thus  smoothing  or  finishing  the  tube  before 
it  leaves  the  pass."  When  it  is  "not  absolutely  necessary 
to  finish  the  tube  after  it  has  been  pierced  by  the  mandrel,  a 
comparatively  rough  tube  being  sufficient,"  each  roll  may 
have  but  one  working  surface.  Fig.  102  is  an  example  of  such 
a  modification. 

The  mandrel  may  be  positively  rotated  or  left  free  to  be 
rotated  by  the  tube  passing  over  it. 


90  THE   MANUFACTURE  OF 

Another  arrangement,  comprising  a  bevelled  edge  disc, 
working  in  conjunction  with  conical  rolls  for  piercing  solid 
billets  without  distorting  the  fibre  of  the  metal,  is  set  forth 
in  the  specification  No.  8148  of  1898,  of  J.  C.  Sturgeon,  of 
Erie,  Pennsylvania,  U.S.A.  The  patent  is  now  void. 

For  the  same  object  another  American  inventor,  L.  D. 
Davis,  also  of  Erie,  Pa.,  describes  in  his  specification,  No. 
12828,  of  1899,  an  arrangement  of  a  pair  of  discs  with  the 
piercing  mandrel  between  them,  the  axes  of  the  discs 
being  respectively  above  and  below  the  line  of  travel  of  the 
ingot. 

In  his  specification  No.  9144,  of  1898,  W.  Pilkington,  of 
Birmingham,  describes  the  piercing  of  solid  steel  or  other 
billets  by  the  application  of  an  explosive  force  behind  a 
piston  directly  connected  with  the  piercing  mandrel.  The 
patent  is  now  void. 

The  specification  No.  14562,  of  1897  (T.  B.  Sharp  and  F. 
Billing,  of  Birmingham),  describes  the  piercing  of  billets 
"by  a  series  of  pressures,  blows,  or  impacts."  The  hot 
billet  is  placed  in  a  cylinder,  and  is  therein  subjected  to  the 
action  of  a  piercing  bar  or  mandrel,  to  which  a  reciprocatory 
movement  is  imparted  through  the  medium  of  an  eccentric, 
or  a  system  of  toggle  joints.  The  patent  is  now  void. 

One  of  the  best  known  patents  of  the  late  James  Kobert- 
sori,  relating  to  the  piercing  of  solid-steel  billets,  is  No. 
11436,  of  1891.  A  leading  feature  in  the  specification  of 
this  patent  is  what  is  described  as  a  "service  plate,"  which 
is  placed  over  the  mouth  of  the  holding-up  stem,  or  the 
ferrule,  in  advance  of  such  stem.  As  the  mandrel  is  forced 
by  hydraulic  pressure  into  the  billet  the  metal  flows  back 
over  the  mandrel,  and  so  forms  the  tube.  The  service  plate, 
during  the  greater  part  of  the  piercing  operation,  is 
required  to  prevent  the  metal  from  flowing  into  the  ferrule 
or  holding-up  stem,  but  towards  the  completion  of  the 
operation  it  is  shorn  through  by  the  advancing  mandrel. 
The  patent  is  now  owned  by  Messrs.  Tubes  Limited,  of 
Birmingham,  who  brought  an  action  against  another  firm  of 
steel  tube  makers  for  infringement  of  the  patent  by  using  a 
'* service  plate"  as  and  for  the  purpose  above  described. 
The  litigation  extended  over  several  years.  At  the  trial  the 


IKON   AND   STEEL   TUBES.  91 

patent  was  held  to  be  valid,  and  judgment  given  in  favour  of 
the  plaintiffs.  On  appeal  by  the  defendants  this  decision  was 
reversed,  but  on  a  final  appeal  to  the  House  of  Lords  by  the 
plaintiffs  the  original  judgment  in  favour  of  the  patent  was 
restored  on  November  20th,  1902. 

The  formation  of  tubes  or  tubular  bodies  by  causing  the 
metal  to  flow  back  over  the  advancing  mandrel  or  punch  is 
also  to  be  found  in  the  specifications  No.  15594,  of  1899,  and 
21052,  and  21053,  of  1900,  of  S.  Frank,'  of  Frankfort-on-the- 
Main,  Germany;  and  in  the  specification  No.  1064,  of  1896, 
of  R.  Bungeroth,  of  Remscheid,  Germany.  In  the  last-named 
specification  (the  patent  granted  on  which  is  in  force),  we  find 
instead  of  a  "  service  plate,"  such  as  patented  by  Robertson, 
that  a  bar  is  held  up  against  the  end  of  the  billet  until  the 
nose  of  the  piercing  mandrel  is  near  such  end ;  the  bar  is 
then  allowed  to  yield,  so  that  the  end  piece  of  the  billet  may 
be  punched  out. 

It  is  found,  as  might  be  anticipated,  that  the  metal  at  the 
end  of  a  billet  subjected  to  the  action  of  a  bar  or  mandrel, 
which  pierces  right  through  such  end,  is  more  liable  to- 
defects  than  at  any  other  part.  The  tendency  of  defects  and 
impurities  in  the  metal  to  tend  towards  the  middle  of  an 
ingot  or  billet  has  been  previously  referred  to,  and  it  can  be 
well  understood  that  the  advance  of  a  bar  or  mandrel 
through  a  hot  billet  would  have  the  effect  of  driving  such 
impurities  in  advance  of  it,  so  that  although  some  of  them 
would  flow  back  over  the  mandrel  with  what  may  be  termed 
the  main  stream  of  the  metal,  there  would  be  an  accumula- 
tion at  the  .rear  end  of  the  billet.  It  is  found  to  be  more 
economical  in  many  cases  to  treat  such  end  piece  of  the  core 
or  central  part  of  the  billet  as  waste  than  to  include  it  in 
the  bloom. 

When  the  metal  is  to  be  subjected  to  considerable  extend- 
ing processes  by  subsequent  rolling  and  cold  drawing,  great 
care  is  necessary  that  defects  shall  be  avoided  which,  in  the 
bloom  itself  appear  (if  indeed  they  appear  at  all)  to  be  of 
little  if  any  consequence.  A  minute  fissure,  resulting  from 
a  tiny  bubble  in  the  molten  metal  or  from  some  other  cause, 
and  presenting  itself  merely  as  a  short  hair  line  on  the  surface 
of  the  bloom  or  pierced  billet,  may  split  a  considerable  length 


92 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


of  tubing  during  cold  drawing.  Such  "rokes"  (as  tube 
makers  term  them),  are  particularly  productive  of  "scrap"  in 
drawing  small  gauge  tubing,  such  as  is  employed  in  cycle 
construction. 

The  illustrations,  figs.  103  and  104,  are  from  the  specifica- 
tion No.  10878,  of  1901,  of  G.  Evans  and  Tubes  Limited,  of 


FIG.  103. 


Birmingham,  covering  "a  process  of  piercing  solid  steel  or 
other  billets  for  the  manufacture  of  tubes,  ordnance  shells, 
and  other  like  hollow  bodies,  in  which,  whilst  the  outer  part 


F.o.  104. 


of  the  billet  is  prevented  from  movement,  its  core  or  inner 
part  is  displaced  and  utilised  to  form  an  extension  on  one 
end  of  the  billet." 

Fig.  103  illustrates  the  apparatus  employed  in  accordance 
with  the  aforesaid  invention  for  the  piercing  of  a  shell  from 


IKON  AND   STEEL  TUBES.  93. 

a  solid  billet.  The  billet  A  is  completely  inserted  "  in  a 
fixed  or  moveable  die  or  holder  as  B,  mounted  upon  a 
suitable  machine,  which  imparts  the  required  motion  to  the 
said  die,  or  to  the  piercing  bar  C,  or  to  both  die  and  bar  as 
may  be  required."  To  prevent  endwise  movement  of  the 
billet,  as  a  whole,  the  die  is  tapered  beyond  the  inner  end  of 
the  billet,  as  shown  in  the  drawing,  so  that  it  shall  form 
"an  annular  abutment,  with  a  decreasing  space  beyond." 
"  Thus,  when  the  billet  A  is  forced  or  drawn  against  the 
piercing  bar  or  mandrel,  or  the  latter  is  forced  into  the 
former,  no  movement  either  in  a  forward  or  backward  direc- 
tion is  imparted  to  the  billet  as  a  whole,  relatively  to  its 
die  or  holder  B,  but  the  core  of  the  metal  is  forced  under 
the  action  of  the  piercing  bar  into  the  tapered  die  space 
hereinbefore  referred  to.  If,  therefore,  the  solid  billet  A  is, 
say,  6  in.  diameter  by  9  in.  long,  it  will — after  being  pierced 
by  a  bar  or  mandrel  described — have  a  total 
length  of  about  12jin.,  made  up  of  the  original  9  in. 
parallel,  part  6  in.  diameter,  together  with  the  taper  part 
formed  by  the  metal  pushed  or  drawn  out  from  the  centre  of 
the  billet  into  the  supplementary  reducing  die  space. 
There  is  no  movement  of  the  skin  or  surface  of  the  billet 
over  the  surface  of  the  die  during  our  piercing  process. 
The  metal  is  simply  forced  from  the  centre  of  the  billet,  and 
entirely  disposed  in  the  taper  die  extension  beyond  the 
original  inner  end  of  the  billet." 

"  In  the  piercing  of  billets  for  the  manufacture  of  shells 
the  piercing  bar  is  not  forced  through  the  inner  end  of  the 
metal,  but  a  solid  portion  is  left  of  the  required  thickness 
at  the  nose  or  extremity  of  the  tapered  part,  forced  out 
from  the  centre  of  the  billet.  The  said  solid  portion  of 
metal  is  consolidated  by  its  abutment  against  a  loose  end  or 
closing  piece,  such  as  the  ram  head  D,  arranged  at  the 
narrow  extremity  of  the  tapered  die  part.  By  means  of  the 
ram  E,  at  the  rear  of  the  said  closing  piece  or  head  D,  which 
is  operated  in  any  convenient  manner,  the  shell  can  be 
forced  out  from  the  die  at  the  conclusion  of  the  piercing 
process." 

"But  in  the  piercing  of  billets  for  the  manufacture  of 
tubes  the  piercing  action  is  continued  until  the  forward  end 


D4  THE  MANUFACTUKE  OF 

of  the  bnr  or  mandrel  has  passed  right  through  the  billot, 
which  is  thus  entirely  converted  into  a  tubular  form  (as 
shown  at  h'g.  104)  without  any  waste  of  metal.  In  this  case 
a  hollow  sleeve  or  bush,  as  F,  is  disposed  between  the  end  of 
the  tapered  die  space  and  the  ram  bond  D  to  receive  the 
piercing  bar  or  mandrel  0." 

The  Ehrhardt  process  for  the  formation  of  hollow  blooms 
from  solid  stoel  billets  appears  to  bo  much  more  extensively 
applied  in  Germany  than  in  this  country.  We  have  probably 
not  yet  heard  the  last  word  concerning  the  purchase  by  the 
British  Government,  from  a  German  firm,  of  a  number  of 
field  guns  made  under  the  Ehrhardt  system,  though  much 
has  been  said  and  written  on  the  subject  by  all  sorts  and 
conditions  of  men.  There  has  boon  plenty  of  noise  if  little 
knowledge. 

Under  the  Ehrhardt  process  a  hot  billet  of  a  square  or 
angular  section  is  placed  completely  within  a  matrix  or  die 
of  the  section  of  the  hollow  bloom  to  be  produced  ;  the 
angular  edges  of  the  billet  may  touch  the  sides  of  the  die 
when  placed  therein,  but  sufficient  space  must  be  provided 
between  the  sides  of  the  billet  and  the  die  to  permit  of  the 
lateral  displacement  of  the  metal  during  piercing.  With  the 
inner  end  of  the  billet  supported  by  the  adjacent  end  of  the 
die,  against  which  it  abuts,  a  piercing  bar  or  mandrel  is  then 
forced  into  the  centre  of  the  metal  ;  the  displacing  action 
causes  the  sides  of  the  billet  to  swell  out  to  the  sides  of  the 
die. 

The  illustration  at  fig.  105  is  from  the  specification  No. 
30358,  of  1897,  of  E.  L.  Cooper,  for  "Improvements  in  ingot 
piercing  methods  and  appliances."  The  patent  on  the 
specification  became  void  in  the  year  1901.  The  invention 
is  described  as  relating  to  **  improved  methods  of  and  means 
for  piercing  copper  and  steel  ingots  while  hot,  and  has  for 
its  object  the  piercing  of  such  ingots  without  the  use  of  dies 
for  enclosing  the  ingots  during  the  operation.  SSuch  dies 
restrict  the  lateral  expansion  ot  the  ingots  during  piercing, 
and  therefore  increase  the  force  required  for  the  piercing 
operation,  as  the  dies  cause  the  expansion  to  take  place 
longitudinally.  Besides  this,  the  dies  force  the  scale  on  the 
outside  of  the  ingot  into  its  surface,  thus  producing  sears, 


IRON  AND  STEEL  TUBES. 


95 


which   are   very   objectionable,    more    especially   when   the 
ingots  are  to  be  subsequently  drawn  into  thin  tubes." 

The  ingot  A,  to  be  pierced,  is  supported  on  a  table  B, 
having   an  aperture  C   in   it  to   receive   the    head   of  the 


mandrel  D  on  the  completion  of  the  piercing,  The  ingot  or 
billet  is  held  central  by  a  recess  in  the  underside  of  the 
crosshead  E.  A  mandrel  guiding  bush  F  is  placed  in  the 
head  E  as  illustrated.  The  crosshead  tie  bolts,  G  are  "  so 
fixed  to  the  table  that  they  can  be  easily  and  rapidly  raised 


96 


THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 


and  lowered  for  the  extraction  of  the  pierced  ingot,  and  the 
insertion  of  a  fresh  blank  ingot."  To  "assist  true  centering 
of  the  piercing  mandrel"  a  hole  may  be  "  drilled  about  one 
inch  deep  "  in  the  upper  end  of  the  billet. 

It  would  doubtless  be  extremely  advantageous  if  lateral 
support  for  the  billet  could  be  dispensed  with  in  such 
piercing  operations ;  but  with  a  steel  billet  in  the  white  hot 
or  glowing  condition  to  which  it  must  be  heated,  if  the 


FIGS.  1C6,  107,  and  108. 

piercing  is  to  be  accomplished  with  a  reasonable  expenditure 
of  power,  it  appears  necessary  in  practice  to  provide  lateral 
support  during  the  piercing. 

In  a  later  specification  by  the  same  inventor  (E.  L. 
Cooper),  No.  15772,  of  1899,  the  billet  is  supported  by  a  die 
fixed  in  advance  of  the  piercing  mandrel,  whilst  the  lateral 
displacement  of  the  metal  is  arranged  to  occur  in  the  bell 
mouth  of  the  said  die.  Figs.  106,  107,  and  108  are  from  the 
drawings  accompanying  the  specification,  on  which  no  patent 
was  granted.  The  ingot  A  is  placed  in  the  matrix  or  die 
B,  into  the  one  end  of  which  is  placed  a  hollow  sleeve  C, 
attached  to  a  hydraulic  ram  D.  At  the  other  end  of  the 
matrix  or  die  B  is  shown  a  mandrel  E,  on  a  stem  rod  F,  at 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES.  97 

the  outer  end  of  which  is  a  crosshead  G  to  support  F 
during  the  time  of  piercing. 

The  method  of  operation  is  as  follows  : — 

The  ram  D  is  raised,  allowing  room  for  ingot  A  and  sleeve 
C  to  be  put  into  the  position  as  shown  at  fig.  106.  Force  is 
then  applied  on  ram  D  by  hydraulic  power  in  the  direction 
of  arrow  a,  forcing  C  on  to  the  back  of  ingot  A,  which  is, 
in  turn,  forced  forward  and  over  mandrel  E. 

Fig.  106  shows  the  position  ready  for  piercing;  fig.  107 
represents  the  ingot  partially  pierced  and  expanded ;  and 
fig.  108  the  completion  of  the  piercing. 


CHAPTER   IX. 

THE   EXTENSION    OF    HOLLOW   STEEL  BLOOMS   BY  HOT 
ROLLING  AND  DRAWING. 

WHILST  comparatively  small  hollow  blooms,  not  exceeding 
about  3  in.  in  external  diameter,  and  such  as  are  generally 
employed  for  the  manufacture  of  cycle  tubes,  can  be  extended 
in  length  and  correspondingly  reduced  in  thickness  by 
rolling,  in  a  hot  state,  over  plug  mandrels  with  a  train  of 
ordinary  or  continuous  rolls,  it  is  found  advantageous  with 
blooms  of  larger  size,  or  where  the  metal  is  to  be  much  reduced 
in  thickness,  to  employ  the  type  known  as  gapped,  back- 
action,  pilger,  or  step-by-step  rolls. 

Gapped  or  back-action  rolls  have  been  known  and  employed 
for  many  years  for  various  forging  operations.  The 
specification  No.  3371  of  1891  (Max  Mannesmann)  describes 
and  claims  a  process  of  forming  or  rolling  tubes  upon  a 
mandrel  by  gapped  rolls  which  are  characterised  as  having 
"grooves  in  part  concentric  and  in  part  eccentric  or 
tapering."  Originally  the  specification  claimed  much  more 
than  this,  but  it  was  limited  to  the  characteristic  indicated 
above  by  an  amendment  effected  at  the  end  of  the  year  1898. 
The  method  of  operation  of  all  back-action  rolls  is  very 
tersely  described  in  the  original  claim  1  of  the  aforesaid 
specification  of  Mannesmann,  which  reads  as  follows  : — 
SST 


98  THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 

"  The  process  of  forming  or  rolling  tubes  and  other  hollow 
bodies  upon  a  mandrel,  wherein  the  metal  object,  during  its 
passage  through  the  rolls,  has  a  step-by-step  forward,  with 
intermediate  retrograde,  motion  imparted  to  it  in  such 
manner  that  it  is  operated  upon  successively  on  a  limited 
portion  of  its  length,  such  point  of  operation  being  made  to 
advance  in  a  longitudinal  direction  along  the  object." 

"  By  this  means " — to  quote  from  the  body  of  the 
specification — "  the  tube  is  not  worked  upon  consecutively 
along  its  entire  length,  but  only  bit  by  bit,  so  that  the  point 
of  operation  progresses,  as  it  were,  from  one  end  of  the  tube 
to  the  other.  Thus,  whereas  in  the  ordinary  process  of 
drawing  a  tube,  this  is  each  time  moved  entirely  through  a 
die,  the  size  of  the  tube  being  reduced  by  passing  it 
consecutively  through  several  drawing  dies  of  decreasing  size, 
according  to  the  present  invention  the  tube  receives  its  final 
shape  by  being  passed  a  single  time  through  the  rolls, 
between  which  it  remains  the  whole  time,  performing  a  series 
of  comparatively  short  longitudinal  movements.  If  the  end 
of  the  tube  where  the  working  commences  be  designated  as 
the  front  end,  and  the  opposite  end  as  the  rear  end,  while 
the  movement  of  the  tube  from  the  rear  towards  the  front 
end  be  called  the  forward  motion,  and  the  reverse  movement 
the  backward  motion,  then  the  working  of  the  tube  takes 
place  during  the  backward  motion,  or  a  portion  thereof.  In 
some  cases  it  is  necessary  after  each  action  of  the  rolls  to 
effect  a  partial  rotation  of  the  tube  round  its  longitudinal 
axis,  in  order  that  the  rolls  may  operate  upon  a  different 
part  of  the  tube."  "  The  rolls  serving  to  carry  out  this 
operation  may  either  receive  a  continuous  rotary  motion  in 
the  same  direction  or  they  may  have  a  to-and-fro  recipro- 
cating motion.  The  rolls  have  in  part  concentric  and  in  part 
eccentric  or  tapering  grooves." 

Figs.  109,  110,  and  111  are  from  the  drawings  accom- 
panying the  specification,  the  description  relating  thereto 
being  as  follows  : — 

"  The  rolls  attack  the  tube  during  the  backward  motion. 
Fig.  109  shows  by  way  of  example  the  termination  of  such 
an  attack  where  the  concentric  part  of  the  calibre  is  already 
in  action.  The  rolls  A  and  B  revolve  in  the  direction  of  the 


IRON   AND   STEEL   TUBES. 


99 


arrows  1  and  2.  When  the  gaps  a  of  the  rolls  face  each 
other,  as  at  fig.  110,  the  tube,  together  with  the  mandrel,  can 
be  again  freely  moved  forward  in  the  direction  of  the  arrow  3, 
so  that  a  further  portion  of  the  tube  is  presented  to  the 
renewed  attack  of  the  rolls.  The  forward  motion  will  be 
greater  than  the  backward  motion,  so  that  the  step-by-step 
forward  and  intermediate  retrograde  motion  shown  in  fig.  Ill 
will  take  place.  When  the  rolls  attack  the  tube  during  the 
backward  motion,  as  at  fig.  Ill,  the  rolling  operation  will  take 
place  from  the  thicker  end  of  the  tube  towards  the  thinner 
end,  as  will  be  readily  seen.  The  calibre  of  the  rolls  will  of 
course  depend  upon  the  desired  section  of  the  tube  to  be 
obtained." 

The  specification  No.  6283  of  1894,  of  B.  Price,  describes 
an  "  apparatus  for  making  tubes  from  hollow  ingots,"  on  the 
step-by-step  method,  "in  which  the  operating  swages  or 


Y 


FIG.  109. 


FIG.  110. 


rolls  are  given  a  reciprocating  movement  in  the  direction  of 
the  length  of  the  ingot,  and  at  the  same  time  are  caused  to 
approach  one  another  on  each  side  of  the  ingot."  A  later 
specification  (No.  13985  of  1900),  in  the  names  of  Lay- 
bourne,  Marsh,  and  Price),  describes  certain  improvements 
relating  to  the  aforesaid  apparatus,  comprising  means  for 
feeding  the  work  between  the  rolls  or  swages,  and  for  the 
removal  of  the  elongated  tube  from  the  mandrel. 


100 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


In  the  specification  No.  14416  of  1900  (0.  Heer,  of 
Diisseldorf),  the  housings  of  gapped  rolls  are  swung  on  a 
horizontal  axis,  "  thus  reducing  shock  when  work  is 
inserted." 

In  ordinary  machines  employed  for  feeding  the  work 
through  gapped  or  back-action  rolls,  the  feeding  action 
cannot  be  continued  until  the  complete  length  has  been 
operated  upon,  for  fear  of  seizure  by  the  rolls  of  the  forward 
end  of  the  push  bar  of  the  feeding  machine.  It  has  been 
a  usual,  practice,  to  avoid  such  an  accident,  not  to  attempt 
to  feed  the  hollow  bloom  right  through  the  rolls,  but  to 
leave  a  wraste  or  unrolled  piece  on  the  rear  end  of  it.  In 
addition  to  waste  of  metal,  this  involves  a  subsequent 
operation  for  the  cutting  off  or  removal  of  the  said  thick 
end.  To  overcome  the  difficulty  the  use  of  a  hot  waste 

e1 


FIG.  112. 

block  between  the  rear  end  of  the  bloom  and  the  nose  of  the 
push  bar  has  been  suggested,  but  this  necessitates  the  use 
of  a  freshly-heated  block  with  each  bloom,  so  that  it  shall  be 
soft  enough  to  yield  readily  when  the  working  parts  of  the 
rolls  press  upon  it. 

A  more  satisfactory  solution  of  the  difficulty  is  shown  at 
fig.  112,  illustrating  the  feeding  machine  described  in  the 
specification  No.  12203  of  1900  (A.  E.  Beck).  This  machine 
appears  to  be  provided  with  a  conically  nosed  socket  piece 
at  the  forward  end  of  the  push  bar,  such  as  is  described 
in  the  specification  No.  5425  of  1900  (H.  Perrins).  Referring 
to  fig.  112,  A  represents  the  hollow  bloom  or  piece  of 
work,  B  the  mandrel  detachably  screwed  into  the  forward 
end  of  the  push  bar  C,  beyond  which  projects  the  conically 
nosed  socket  C',  D  the  wheeled  carriage  (advanced  by  rack 
and  pinion  device)  supporting  the  push  bar,  and  E  E'  the 


IRON  AND"  STEEL'J  TtJBES.  101 

gap  rolls  with  work  stops  e  at  the  rear  side.  The  following 
extract  from  the  specification  describes  the  manner  of  feeding 
the  rear  end  of  the  work  through  the  rolls  : — 

"  When  the  bloom  or  tube  vise  A  has  been  nearly  passed 
through  the  rolls  E  E',  it  is  ordinarily  necessary  to  disengage 
the  mandrel  B  from  the  push  bar  C,  and  then  either  to 
complete  the  feeding  through  the  rolls  by  hand  or  leave  an 
uuworked  piece  of  metal  at  the  end  of  the  bloom,  which  has 
subsequently  to  be  removed.  Bat  by  my  present  invention 
the  mandrel  B,  when  the  tube  has  been  nearly  passed  right 
through  the  rolls,  has  an  advancing  and  releasing  motion 
imparted  to  it  relatively  to  the  push  bar  in  which  it  is 
supported,  or  the  bar  is  caused  to  retreat  from  the  mandrel, 
to  enable  the  rolls  to  bite  and  operate  upon  the  metal 
right  up  to  the  rear  extremity  of  the  bloom,  and  thus  to 
permit  of  the  automatic  feeding  of  the  said  bloom  and  its 
freed  mandrel  completely  through  the  rolls.  In  one  method 
of  effecting  the  automatic  relative  movement  between  the 
push  bar  C  and  the  mandrel  B,  I  form  a  quick  screw  thread 
or  threads  around  the  fore  part  of  C  (the  direction  of  spiral 
being  opposite  to  that  of  the  slow  pitch  screw  thread  at  the 
rear  end  of  the  bar),  and  pass  the  same  through  a  nut  F 
having  ratchet  teeth  formed  around  its  perimeter.  Normally 
the  said  nut  is  free  to  rotate  in  either  direction  within  the 
box  F'  as  the  screwed  push  bar  passes  through  it,  but  after 
the  hollow  bloom  or  tube  shell  A  has  been  nearly  passed 
right  through  the  rolls,  the  nut  F  is  locked  or  prevented 
from  rotation  by  a  pawl  lever  which  is  then  thrown  into 
engagement  with  the  ratchet  teeth  of  the  nut  by  means  of 
any  suitable  lever  device,  as  H.  When  the  nut  is  thus 
locked,  or  prevented  from  rotation  in  the  one  direction,  the 
push  bar  C  on  each  return  stroke  (or  movement  in  the 
direction  indicated  by  the  arrow  3)  will  have  such  a  rotary 
movement  imparted  to  it,  whilst  the  tube  and  its  mandrel 
are  gripped  tightly  between  the  rolls,  as  to  cause  it  to 
unscrew  and  retreat  from  the  mandrel  B.  In  this  manner 
the  socket-like  projection  C'  (which  is  in  rigid  attachment 
with  the  bar  C),  or  other  nose  of  the  bar,  is  carried  back  at 
each  stroke  a  sufficient  distance  to  clear  the  rolls  and  enable 
the  same  to  bite  and  operate  upon  the  rear  end  of  the  metal 


102 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


forming  the  tube  bloom,  and  thus  the  entire  bloom  is 
automatically  passed — by  the  continuous  action  of  the 
feeding  machine — right  through  the  rolls  as  a  finished 
tube." 

The  slow  pitch  screw  thread  at  the  rear  end  of  the  bar, 
referred  to  above,  is  for  the  automatic  rotation  of  the  work 
during  its  return  to  the  rolls  under  the  action  of  the  spring 
K,  to  bring  the  entire  circumferential  surface  of  the  tube 
under  the  action  of  the  rolls. 


Fia.  113. 

The  tube  rolling  machine,  as  illustrated  at  fig.  1 1 3,  is  from 
H.  Ehrhardt's  specification  No.  12747  of  1899.  Freely 
rotatable  rollers,  as  A,  are  mounted  on  the  discs  B  rotated, 
as  indicated  by  the  arrows,  in  a  contrary  direction  to  the 
movement  of  the  work  which  is  fed  or  drawn  through  the 
machine.  "  The  rollers  roll  and  press  on  the  work,  the 
latter  being  thereby  drawn  out  and  forced  to  assume  the 


IRON   AND    STEEL   TUBES. 


103 


required  profile  or  shape.  It  is,  however,  immaterial  in 
which  direction  the  work  moves  ;  it  may  advance  in  or 
against  the  movement  of  the  rollers ;  the  rollers  may  also 
differ  from  each  other  as  regards  dimensions  or  diameters  of 
their  projecting  or  recessed  parts,  forming  increasing  or 
decreasing  profiles  for  the  purpose  of  effecting  a  more 
energetic  rolling  or  shaping  of  the  work."  The  device  is 
described  as  permitting  "a  periodical  rolling  or  drawing  out 
while  the  work  steadily  advances." 

Shortly  after  the  above-named  specification  of  Ehrhardt, 
there  was  filed  on  behalf  of  R.  H.  Keithley,  of  New  York, 
the  specification  No.  17473  of  1899  (from  which  fig.  114  is 


FIG.  114. 

taken),  describing  another  arrangement  in  which  rolls  are 
caused  to  rotate  in  opposition  to  the  advancing  movement 
of  the  tube.  The  invention  is  described  as  having  for  its 
object  the  provision  of  "  an  improved  method  and  apparatus 
for  the  economic  manufacture  of  seamless  tubing  of  superior 
density  and  toughness." 

The  following  is  from  the  body  of  the  specification  : — 
"In  the  manufacture  of  seamless  tubing  prior  to  the  present 
invention,  two  operations  have  heretofore  been  found 
absolutely  essential.  The  first  operation  or  process  is  what 
is  known  as  the  hot  process.  At  the  present  time,  the  hot 
process  of  rolling  tubing  is  carried  out  by  a  variety  of 


104  THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 

machines.     In  the  first  class  of  machines  for  performing  the 
hot  process,  a  heated  billet  or  blank  is  mounted  or  secured 
upon  a  mandrel,  and  is  reduced  in  diameter  by  ordinary 
straight-line  rolling  machines  of  a  similar  construction  to 
those  employed  for  rolling  rods.     In  other  cases  power  has 
been  applied  to  force  the  mandrel  and  blank  through  rolls 
which  are   idle    or    free    to    turn.     In   recent   years,    the 
apparatus  employed  in  the  hot  process  of  tube  rolling  has 
been   modified  or  improved    in  a  variety   of  ways,  as,  for 
example,    by   the    substitution    of  inclined    discs   for   the 
straight-line  rolling  mills  previously  employed.     These  discs 
have  been  set  at  an  angle  with  respect  to  the  path  of  the 
mandrel  so  as  to  produce  a  spiral  action,  as  it  were,  upon 
the  billet  or  blank,  and  various  other  changes  have  been 
made  upon  specific  sets  of  apparatus  employed — that  is  to 
say,    the    advances    or  improvements    in  the   manufacture 
of   seamless   tubing    have    in   recent   years   been    designed 
with  a  view  of  discarding  the  old  type  of  direct,  straight-line 
rolling   mills,    and    have    been    produced    with   a   view    of 
perfecting   the    more   complicated   types    of    the   variously 
modified   disc   rolling  machines.     With   none    of  the  prior 
methods  of  hot  rolling,  either  practised  with  the  ordinary 
straight-line  rolling  mills  or  with  the  later  disc  rolling  mills, 
has  it  been  possible,  however,  to  produce  a  finished  tubing 
by    the    hot   process    alone.     All    these    prior   hot-rolling 
processes  affect  only  the  outer  layers  or  surface  of  the  tubing 
being  produced,  and  the  inner  layers  of  the  hot  rolled  tubes 
have  not  heretofore  been  compacted  to  the  same  degree  as 
the  outer  layers  or  surface  thereof,  and  in  order  to  produce  a 
finished  tubing,  it  has  heretofore  been  absolutely  essential  to 
use  an  additional  or  second  finishing  process.     This  second 
finishing   is  commonly  known  as  the  cold   process,  and  it 
ordinarily  consists  in  drawing  the  unfinished  tubing  made 
by   a  hot  process  through  a  stationary  die  or  dies.     This 
second  finishing  or  cold  process  will  compact  and  harden  the 
outer   layers   of  the   tubing,  and  will  produce  tubing  sub- 
stantially uniform  in  diameter ;  but  even  after  the  application 
of  the  second  finishing  or  cold  process,  the  inner  layers  of 
tubing  thus  produced  will  be  left  comparatively  soft  or  of  com- 
paratively light  density. 


IRON   AND    STEEL  TUBES. 


105 


The  present  invention  has  been  designed  \vith  a  special 
view  of  producing  finished  tubing  by  a  single  hot  process, 
thereby  eliminating  from  the  manufacture  of  tubing  of  this 
class  one  set  of  apparatus,  and  the  entire  second  finishing  or 
cold  process  which  is  now  necessarily  employed.  To 
accomplish  this  result,  this  inventon  has  returned  to  the  old 
form  of  straight-line  rolling  mill,  and  the  desired  result  is 
accomplished  by  using  the  rolls  of  this  old  apparatus,  so  that, 
instead  of  allowing  said  rolls  to  act  in  the  ordinary  manner, 
they  are  turned  in  opposition  to  the  advancing  movement  of 
the  ingot.  This  will  cause  the  rolls  to  act  upon  the  metal 
of  the  blank  with  a  novel  heavy  roll-drawing  action,  which 


FIG.  115. 


will  produce  a  stretching,  straightening,  and  compacting  of 
the  fibres  under  pressure ;  that  is  to  say,  the  metal  will  be 
supported  on  the  mandrel  as  upon  an  anvil,  and  will  be 
caused  to  flow  thereon,  as  it  were,  so  that  the  entire  mass  or 
body  of  metal  will  be  uniformly  compacted  and  made  homo- 
genous throughout  its  thickness,  atirl,  by  this  improvement  in 
the  art,  this  invention  may  produce  by  a  single  process 
finished  tubing  which  it  has  heretofore  been  impossible  to 
produce  without  the  addition  of  the  second  finishing  or  cold 
process." 

The    rolls   A    are    positively   rotated   in  the   directions 
indicated  by  the  arrows  thereon,  which  is  in  opposition  to 


106 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


the  advancing  movement  of  the  mandrel  B,  "•  which  may  be 
reciprocated  and  simultaneously  revolved,  if  desired,  by  any 
ordinary  means,"  such  as  a  hydraulic  cylinder. 

Fig.  115  is  an  elevation  and  fig.  116  a  sectional  plan 
representing  a  type  of  machine  for  stretching  or  elongating 
hollow  steel  blooms,  described  and  illustrated  in  the  specifica- 
tion" No.  3788  of  1900,  of  G.  Beesly.  The  hollow  billet  A  is 
operated  upon  at  the  pass  formed  between  the  adjacent  sides. 


Fio.  lie. 

of  the  discs  B  B'  arranged  at  right  angles  to  each  other. 
"  Both  discs  are  positively  driven,  and  the  centre  of  the  one 
is  arranged  above  the  centre  of  the  other,  as  illustrated. 
The  action  of  such  discs  is,  therefore,  to  set  up  a  rotation  of 
the  billet  A,  and  at  the  same  time  to  give  it  a  progressive  or 
forward  motion.  The  directions  of  the  various  movements 
are  indicated  by  the  arrows."  The  mandrel  is  held  in  ten- 
sion in  the  pass,  as  illustrated,  whilst  the  bloom  is  guided  or 
kept  in  its  proper  path  by  guides  b  b'. 


IRON   AND   STEEL   TUBES. 

TAPER  TUBULAR  STEEL  POLES. 


10? 


Tubular  poles,  such  as  are  employed  for  the  support  of 
the  overhead  conductors  or  wires  for  electric  tramways,  can 
be  made  without  great  difficulty  in  a  tapered  form  if  welded 
tube  of  wrought  iron  or  mild  steel  is  employed.  But  weld- 
less  steel  tube  manufacturers  generally  prefer  to  make  such 
poles  from  two  or  more  lengths  of  differing  diameters 
socketed  together,  finding  this  to  be  more  convenient  than, 
to  produce  one  long  and  continuously  tapering  length. 


FIG.  11' 


FIG.  118. 


Figs.  117  and  118  illustrate  the  means  set  forth  in  the- 
specification  No.  2666  of  1899,  of  H.  J.  Waddie,  for 
"  drawing  and  rolling  tubes  to  a  regular  or  irregular  taper 
or  to  a  varying  transverse  section  at  different  parts  of  their 
length."  "  For  this  purpose,"  the  patentee  proceeds,  "  I 
employ  as  a  die  a  pair  of  rollers  geared  together  so  as  to 
revolve  at  equal  surface  speed  in  opposite  directions,  each 
having  a  circumferential  groove  shaped  to  half  the  trans- 
verse section  of  the  tube,  that  section  varying  at  different 


108  THE   MANUFACTURE  OF 

parts  of  the  circumference,  it  may  be,  in  the  same  order  and 
proportions  as  the  desired  variations  of  the  tube.  While  the 
rollers  revolve  the  tube  to  be  operated  on,  preferably  heated, 
is  drawn  through  between  them  at  any  desired  speed,  the 
variations  of  section  being  thus  made  over  lengths  of  the 
tube  proportional  to  the  speed  at  which  it  is  made  to  travel 
relatively  to  the  surface  speed  of  the  rollers.  If  the  rollers 
remain  at  rest  while  the  tube  is  drawn,  the  section  of  the 
tube  will  be  uniform." 

Figs.  117  and  118  are  transverse  sections  of  the  pair  of 
rollers  which  constitute  the  varying  die,  showing  diagram- 
matically  the  positions  of  the  rollers  relatively  to  a  taper- 
drawn  tube  at  the  beginning  and  the  end  of  the  draw 
respectively. 


CHAPTER    X. 

COLD   DRAWING. 

THE  reduction  of  the  thickness  and  corresponding  exten- 
sion in  length  of  seamless  tubing,  by  drawing  such  tubing 
in  a  cold  state  through  fixed  dies,  has  been  continuously 
carried  on  in  the  Birmingham  brass  and  other  metal  tube 
trades  for  nearly  eighty  years.  The  same  process  is  employed 
in  the  final  reduction  of  steel  tubes  for  use  in  the  construc- 
tion of  cycle  frames  and  for  other  purposes.  Seamless  steel 
tubes  for  use  in  water- tube  or  tubulous  boilers  are  also 
subjected  to  a  cold  drawing.  The  well-known  "draw  bench" 
of  the  endless  chain  type  is  the  machine  most  generally 
employed  for  cold  drawiug,  though  for  heavy  work  or  tubes 
of  large  diameter  hydraulic  machines  are  adopted. 

Fig.  119  is  from  the  specification  entitled  "Improvements 
in  Draw  Benches"  (15419  of  1899)  of  G.  A.  Muntz  and 
A.  J.  Astbury.  The  stated  object  of  the  invention  "is  to 
automatically  effect  the  return  motion  or  traverse  of  the 
draw-bench  dog-wagon  or  carriage  after  it  has  made  its 
advance  motion  or  traverse,  and  after  the  tube  or  article  has 
been  released  from  the  die  and  the  wagon  from  the  drawing 


IRON  AND   STEEL   TUBES.  109^ 

power."  Such  return  of  the  dog-wagon  is  usually  effected 
by  "  an  attendant,"  who,  in  most  cases,  is  a  small  boy  whose 
activity  in  the  accomplishment  of  his  task  makes  it  appear 
that  the  motive  power  proceeds  from  the  wagon  itself,  for 
the  boy  generally  manages,  by  a  dexterous  initial  kick  off,  to 
make  the  wagon  carry  him  back  along  with  itself  to  the  die 
end  of  the  bench. 

The  invention  referred  to,  and  illustrated  at  fig.  119,  is 
briefly  described  in  the  following  extract  from  the  specifi- 
cation: "At  the  rear,  and  below  the  level  of  the  bed  of 


FIG.  119. 

draw  bench,  we  arrange  a  cross  shaft  carrying  a  pulley  and 
working  freely  in  its  bearings.  To  the  rear  end  of  the  dog- 
wagon  or  carriage  one  end  of  a  rope  or  chain  is  attached, 
the  other  end  of  the  said  rope  or  chain  being  attached  to  the 
pulley  described  on  the  cross  shaft,  a  guide  pulley  guiding 
the  said  rope  or  chain  to  and  from  the  said  pulley.  As  the 
dog-wagon  or  carriage  makes  its  forward  traversing  motion 
on  the  bed  of  the  draw  bench,  the  rope  or  chain  described  is 
unwound  from  the  pulley.  As  the  dog-wagon  or  carriage 
makes  its  back  or  return  motion,  the  rope  or  chain  is  auto- 


110 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


matically  wound  upon  the  pulley  in  the  following  manner  : 
On  one  end  of  the  cross  shaft  carrying  the  pulley  a  small 
drum  is  affixed,  on  which  a  weighted  cord  or  chain  is  coiled 
or  uncoiled.  As  the  dog-wagon  or  carriage  makes  its  for- 
ward traverse,  the  said  weighted  rope  or  chain  is  coiled  upon 
the  drum  and  the  weight  is  raised,  the  dog-wagon  rope  or 
chain  being  at  the  same  time  unwound  from  its  pulley.  On 
the  release  of  the  dog-wagon  from  the  drawing  power  the 
weight  descends,  and  the  weighted  rope  or  chain  is  unwound 
from  its  drum,  giving  rotation  to  its  shaft  and  to  the  pulley 


FIG.  120. 


Fio.  121. 

upon  it,  and  effecting  the  winding  of  the  dog-wagon  rope  or 
chain  upon  the  said  pulley,  and  thus  automatically  giving 
the  return  or  back  traverse  to  the  dog-wagon  or  carriage." 

In  cold  drawing,  the  tube  naturally  becomes  very  tightly 
closed  upon  the  bar  or  mandrel  as  it  passes  with  it  through 
the  reducing  die.  The  subsequent  release  of  the  combined 
parts  is  generally  effected  by  "reeling"  or  rolling,  whereby 
the  tube  is  sufficiently  loosened  to  permit  of  the  ready  with- 
drawal of  the  mandrel;  such  withdrawal  is  frequently  accom- 
plished by  connecting  the  mandrel  to  a  draw-bench  chain 
whilst  the  tube  is  held  back  by  a  stripper  or  thrust  plate, 
ring,  or  fork  piece. 

Figa.  120,  121,  and  122  are  from  the  specification  No. 
28699  of  1897,  of  Ellwood  Ivins,  of  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  U.S.A., 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES.  Ill 

whereby  the  "reeling"  or  loosening  of  the  tube  upon  the 
mandrel  is  effected  simultaneously  with  the  drawing.  The 
patentee  states  that  he  combines  "with  the  draw  head  of 
the  machine  means  for  so  acting  upon  the  tube  immediately 
after  it  issues  from  the  draw  plate,  that  by  the  time  the 
drawing  operation  is  completed  the  drawn  tube  will  be  ex- 
panded throughout  its  entire  length,  and  the  core  or  mandrel 
can  be  removed  therefrom.  Fig.  120  is  a  diagrammatic  view 
of  sufficient  of  a  draw  bench  to  explain  the  invention,  the 
drawing  of  the  tube  being  illustrated  in  progress.  Fig.  121 
is  a  similar  view  showing  the  tube  being  removed  from  the 
mandrel."  Fig.  122  is  an  end  view  showing  the  arrangement 
of  the  rollers  for  "  reeling "  or  loosening  the  tube.  The 
patentee  describes  his  preferred  means  for  effecting  the 
"expansion  of  the  tube"  as  "a  series  of  rollers  so  disposed 
that  they  will  bear  upon  the  tube  at  four  points,  which, 
viewed  transversely,  are  equidistant  (see  fig.  122),  and  will 
compress  the  said  tube  at  those  points  sufficiently  to  cause 
it  to  bulge  or  spread  between  the  points  of  contact,  whereby 
the  hold  of  the  tube  upon  the  core  or  mandrel  is  so  reduced 
that  the  said  core  or  mandrel  can,  after  the  passage  of  the 
tube  through  the  rollers,  be  readily  withdrawn  by  power 
suitably  applied  to  the  end  of  the  mandrel  opposite  that  to 
which  power  was  applied  in  drawing  the  tube.  In  order  to 
effect  the  ready  withdrawal  of  the  mandrel  I  use  a  supple- 
mentary draft  chain  B  in  front  of  the  draw  head,  and 
travelling  in  a  direction  the  reverse  of  that  of  the  chain  A. 
When  the  tube  and  its  mandrel  have  been  drawn  through 
the  die  plate  C  and  rollers,  a  stripper  plate  D  is  applied  to 
the  draw  head,  as  shown  in  fig.  122,  and  the  rear  end  of  the 
core  is  passed  through  the  opening  in  the  said  plate,  and 
connected  by  any  suitable  means  to  the  rearwardly  travelling 
draft  chain  B,  the  stripper  plate  being  such  as  to  act  as  a 
stop  for  the  tube,  so  that  the  mandrel  will  be  withdrawn 
from  the  same,  and,  when  so  withdrawn,  will  occupy  a 
position  in  front  of  the  draw  head,  where  a  new  tube  can  be 
applied  to  it.  By  this  means  any  handling  of  the  drawn  tube, 
with  its  enclosed  mandrel,  is  rendered  unnecessary,  since 
there  is  no  need  to  carry  the  tube  from  the  rear  of  the  draw 
head  to  the  front  thereof,  or  to  turn  the  tube  and  its 


112  THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 

enclosed  mandrel  end  for  end  in  order  to  permit  of  the  with- 
drawal of  the  mandrel,  and  therefore  the  whole  operation 
can  be  very  cheaply  and  expeditiously  performed." 

To  facilitate  the  cold  drawing  of  weldless  steel  tubes  the 
specification  JNTo.  10539  of  1897  (A.  C.  Wright)  describes 
the  use  of  a  coating  of  tin  as  a  lubricant.  The  following 
description  is  from  the  specification  : — 

"  In  the  ordinary  process  of  drawing  tubes  or  tube  blanks 
the  surface  of  the  tube  and  that  of  the  dies  or  other  tools 
are  freely  lubricated  with  oil  or  grease  or  like  unctuous 
substances,  and  such  drawing  down  process  necessitates  a 
great  expenditure  of  mechanical  energy.  After  the  tube 
has  been  drawn  or  reduced  to  the  required  dimensions,  it  is 
necessary  to  thoroughly  remove  the  whole  of  the  grease  in 
the  event  of  the  tube  surfaces  requiring  to  be  plated  or 
japanned,  as  otherwise  such  operations  cannot  be  efficiently 
performed." 

"  In  drawing  tubes  or  tube  blanks  in  accordance  with  my 
invention,  1  prevent  the  actual  contact  of  the  surfaces  of  the 
steel  or  other  tube  to  be  drawn  with  the  surfaces  of  the  dies 
or  other  tools,  by  an  interposing  film  of  soft  metal  or  anti- 
friction metal ;  such  metal  by  gliding  through  the  die  along 
with  the  tube  acts  as  an  efficient  lubricant  exactly  in  the 
place  required,  and  is  not  pushed  off  the  tube  at  the  die 
mouth  as  with  ordinary  lubricants.  The  metal  which  I  pre- 
ferably employ  consists  of  a  mixture  of  tin  and  lead,  in  the 
proportion  of  six  parts  tin  to  four  parts  lead.  Such  a  mix- 
ture, in  addition  to  being  cheaper  than  pure  tin,  gives  a 
better  coating  upon  the  tube.  The  anti-friction  metal  can 
be  applied  either  by  immersion  of  the  tube  or  tube  blank  in 
a  bath  of  the  molten  metal  before  submitting  it  to  the 
drawing  process,  or  in  other  convenient  manner.  By  thus 
employing  an  interposing  film  of  anti-friction  metal  between 
the  surfaces  of  the  tube  or  blank  and  the  dies  or  mandrels, 
or  operating  tools  or  appliances,  I  am  enabled  to  dispense 
entirely  with  the  use  of  oil,  grease,  or  like  unctuous  sub- 
stances, to  effect  a  great  saving  in  the  wear  of  the  dies  and 
mandrels,  and  to  very  materially  reduce  the  expenditure  of 
mechanical  energy  and  the  time  required  for  the  drawing  or 
reducing  process.  My  treatment  also  permits  of  the  employ- 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES.  113 

ment  of  a  cheaper  steel  for  the  production  of  weldless  steel 
tubes  for  cycles  and  other  constructional  purposes,  the  tube 
produced  therefrom  being  quite  equal  in  quality  to  the  tubes 
produced  in  the  ordinary  manner  from  Swedish  steel.  I  am 
also  enabled  to  draw  tubes  of  hard  white  metal  and  other 
alloys,  such  as  cannot  be  otherwise  drawn,  and  to  facilitate 
the  drawing  of  copper,  brass,  and  the  like  tubes." 

"  In  the  drawing  of  weldless  steel  tubes  I  do  not  remove 
the  tube  from  its  mandrel  until  it  has  been  finished  to  the 
required  size,  passing  it  several  times  through  dies  without 
annealing  and  pickling  between  the  passes,  but,  after  each 
pass  or  after  the  tube  has  been  drawn  through  each  die,  I 
subject  it  to  the  action  of  a  reeling  or  releasing  machine,  to 
sufficiently  release  the  tube  to  permit  of  the  free  flow  of  the 
metal  in  the  next  draw  or  pass.  Thus  in  the  drawing  of  a 
tube  whose  thickness  on  leaving  the  rolls  is  equal  to  about 
No.  1 1  gauge  down  to  a  thickness  equal  to  No.  20  gauge,  I 
first  coat  the  tube  with  anti-friction  metal  (after  annealing, 
if  necessary),  and  then  draw  it  through  a  series  of  five  or 
six  dies  until  reduced  to  the  required  finished  size.  After 
leaving  each  die  the  tube  is  reeled,  but  not  taken  off  the 
mandrel,  before  being  passed  through  the  next." 

The  drawing  of  a  number  of  tubes  simultaneously  on  the 
one  mandrel  is  described  in  the  specification  No.  3372  of  the 
year  1902,  filed  on  behalf  of  La  Societe  Vogt  and  Cie,  of 
Niederbruck,  near  Maxmiinster,  Alsace,  Germany.  A 
number  of  tubes  are  nested  together  and  drawn  on  the  one 
mandrel  inserted  in  the  innermost  tube  To  prevent  what 
is  termed  "  a  grinding  or  welding  together "  of  the  nested 
tubes,  they  are  covered  with  "  a  thin  protective  coating  (for 
example,  of  milk  of  lime  or  of  a  mixture  of  graphite  and 
coal)." 

COMBINED  DRAWING  AND  ROLLING. 

Fig.  123  is  from  the  specification  No.  4629  of  1902  of  Max 
Mannesmann,  showing  the  combination  of  a  draw-bench 
device  with  rolls.  A  sufficient  description  is  given  by  the 
first  claim,  which  reads  as  follows  :  "  The  improvement  in 
the  rolling  of  tubes,  which  consists  in  rolling  a  hollow  billet 
or  blank  between  positively-driven  rolls  and  a  positively- 

9ST 


114 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


driven  endwise-actuated  mandrel,  the  velocity  of  the  mandrel 
being  greater  than  the  peripheral  velocity  with  which  the 
calibre  of  the  rolls  revolve,  whereby  the  stretching  ont  of 
the  hollow  blank  is  facilitated  or  the  crowding  up  of  the 
rolled  out  part  of  the  tube  in  longitudinal  direction  is  pre- 
vented, substantially  as  described."  It  will  be  observed 


FIG.  123. 

that,  unlike  the  Ehrhardt  and  the  Keithley  machines 
described  in  a  former  article,  the  movement  of  the  rolls  is 
in  the  same  direction  as  that  of  the  independently  actuated 
mandrel.  The  following  patent  specifications  of  Max  Mannes- 
mann  are  concurrent  with  the  foregoing  :  4553,  4554,  4625, 
4626,  4627,  4628,  all  of  the  year  1902. 

DRAWING  WELDLESS  TUBES  WITH  BUTT  ENDS  OR 
THICKENED  ENDS. 

Figs.  124  and  125  are  from  the  specification  No.  24931  of 
1897,  of  A.  M.  Reynolds  and  J.  T.  Hewitt,  of  Birmingham, 
describing  the  drawing  of  tubes  with  a  varying  distribution 
of  metal.  The  particular  figures  selected  illustrate  the 
manufacture  of  a  double  butted  tube,  or  a  tube  with  both 
ends  thickened.  The  mandrel  is  necked  or  reduced  at  the 
required  positions  to  give  the  thickened  portions  of  tube. 
On  subsequently  withdrawing  the  mandrel  the  said  thickened 
portions  are  expanded,  thus  providing  a  uniform  internal 
bore,  as  at  fig.  125.  If  the  tube  is  required  in  this  form  the 
closed  or  tagged  end  is  then  cut  off.  But  if,  as  in  the  case 


IRON  AND    STEEL  TUBES.  115 

of  cycle  tubing,  a  uniform  external  diameter  is  required,  the 
tube  is  drawn  through  a  die,  without  a  mandrel,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  contracting  the  external  projections ;  the  thickened 
portions  are  thus  returned  to  the  original  or  fig.  124  position. 
A  machine  specially  adapted  for  the  drawing  of  butted  or 
reinforced  tubes  as  aforesaid  is  described  in  A.  M.  Reynolds' 
specification  No.  4443  of  1899. 

ANNEALING  AND  PICKLING. 

By  the  ordinary  methods  of  annealing,  in  which  the  tubes 
are  exposed  to  oxidising  gases  during  heating  and  to  the  air 
during  cooling,  there  is  a  wastage  of  metal  by  the  formation 
of  oxide  on  the  tube  surfaces.  For  the  complete  removal  of 
such  oxide  it  is  necessary  to  subject  the  tubing  to  the 
"  pickling  "  process,  which  may  set  up  a  further  wastage.  A 


\  VVWX 


FIGS.  124  and  125. 

weak  acid  solution,  consisting  of  one  part  hydrochloric  acid 
to  39  parts  water,  is  the  "  pickling"  solution  specified  by  the 
British  Admiralty  for  the  thorough  cleansing  of  boiler  tubes 
for  examination  prior  to  their  acceptance  from  the 
manufacturer. 

In  several  industries — notably  in  the  manufacture  of  the 
bright  steel  wire  used  for  making  cards  for  the  purpose  of 
combing  wool  or  other  fibres,  and  also  in  the  rolling  of 
bright  metal  sheets  or  strips  for  various  purposes — what  is 
known  as  "  bright  annealing  "  is  employed.  By  this  process 
the  articles  are  surrounded  by  an  inert  or  non-oxidising 
atmosphere  during  the  annealing  process.  According  to  one 
method  of  applying  the  process  the  articles  are  placed  in 
an  annealing  box  which  is  connected  by  a  flexible  pipe  with 
an  ordinary  illuminating  gas  supply.  The  admission  of  the 


11C  THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 

coal  gas  drives  out  the  air  and  maintains  an  inert  or 
non-oxidising  atmosphere  within  the  annealing  box 
throughout  the  annealing  operation.  The  articles  are  thus 
not  only  protected  from  scaling  but  their  original  brightness 
is  not  lost  nor  impaired  during  annealing. 

Close  annealing  and  '"  bright  annealing "  appear  to  offer 
very  considerable  advantages  to  weldless  steel  tube  manufac- 
turers, and  we  understand  that  it  has  been  adopted  by  some 
of  them. 

In  his  specification  No.  4085  of  1902,  for  "Improve- 
ments relating  to  the  treatment  of  metals  during  manufac- 
facture  into  various  articles,"  Mr.  T.  Vaughan  Hughes, 
A.R.S.M.,  of  Birmingham,  describes,  inter  alia,  "  annealing  in 
the  presence  of  a  gas  capable  of  acting  chemically  so  as  to 
remove  any  scale  formed  during  previous  processes  of  manu- 
facture, thus  virtually  currying  out  the  annealing  and 
pickling  processes  simultaneously."  For  this  purpose  he 
admits  to  the  annealing  furnace  "a  gas  which  will  act 
chemically  to  remove  any  scale  previously  formed,  and 
prevent  the  formation  of  further  scale,  such,  for  instance,  as 
chlorine  or  hydrochloric  acid  gas  in  the  case  of  iron  and 
ammonia  in  the  case  of  copper." 

In  his  paper  read  in  November,  1899,  before  the  Cycle 
Engineers'  Institute,  on  "  Some  Aspects  of  Steel  Tube 
Making,"  from  which  an  extract  was  given  in  an  earlier 
article,  Mr.  Alex.  E.  Tucker,  F.I.C.,  of  Birmingham,  makes 
the  following  reference  to  pickling  : — 

"  The  loss  of  expensively  produced  metal  is  again  large  in 
the  pickling  process,  and  the  lessening  of  the  leakage  in 
monetary  value  is  much  to  be  desired.  A  process  has  lately 
been  suggested  for  pickling  sheets,  in  which  the  scale  is 
removed  electrically  by  making  the  sheets  the  anode  in  a 
practically  neutral  solution,  and  using  a  lead  or  iron  plate  as 
a  cathode.  The  method  would  seem  to  be  applicable 
to  tubes.  Special  arrangements  would  have  to  be  provided 
for  their  lengths  and  circular  section.  Perhaps,  however, 
these  might  be  met  by  threading  the  tubes  on  vertical  iron 
legs,  bolted  to  a  strong  wooden  frame.  The  whole  would 
then  be  lowered  into  the  pickling  vat  filled  with  the  neutral 
solution,  and  electrically  connected  with  a  small  dynamo. 


IRON   AND    STEEL   TUBES.  117 

From  experiments  I  have  made  in  connection  with  this 
matter  I  find  that  a  current  of  3*8  amperes  per  square  foot 
of  surface,  working  in  a  neutral  solution,  very  easily  scales 
steel.  If  it  should  be  found  practically  possible  to  use  this 
method  of  pickling  for  tubes,  there  would  be  on  the  credit 
side  a  more  uniform  removal  of  metal  than  is  possible  when 
bundles  of  tubes  are  placed  in  a  horizontal  tank  of  acid 
water.  Difficulties  as  to  the  disposal  of  waste  pickle  would 
be  at  an  end,  and  as  a  minor  advantage  the  iron  taken  off 
the  tubes  could  be  returned  to  the  puddling  or  blast 
furnace  for  regeneration  into  more  tubes." 

Fig.  126  represents  a  pickling  apparatus  "for  removing 
rust,  cinder,  or  other  foreign  substance"  from  the  surface  of 
"metallic  tubes,  rods,  and  the  like,  which  are  to  be  subjected 
to  cold-drawing  operations,"  as  described  and  illustrated  in 
the  specification  No.  4897  of  1898,  filed  on  behalf  of  Wm. 
A.  McCool,  of  Beaver  Falls,  Pa.,  U.S.A.  :— 

"A  is  a  tank  containing  the  chemical  reagent,  such  as 
dilute  sulphuric  or  other  acid.  It  is  preferably  of  sufficient 
height  to  receive  the  entire  length  of  long  tubes  or  bars  B 
supported  by  the  carrier.  The  tube  carrier  comprises  a 
central  rod  C,  a  perforated  floor  D,  and  one  or  more  adjust- 
able perforated  plates  E  fixed  at  various  distances  from  the 
bottom.  In  the  bottom  of  the  tank  A  there  is  a  step  F  with 
a  recess  /  to  receive  the  end  of  the  central  rod  C.  At  the 
upper  end  of  the  rod  C  is  a  swivel  at  G,  and  chain  H  by 
which  the  tube  carrier  can  be  raised  and  lowered.  Below 
the  step  F  is  a  valve  I,  which  can  be  opened  by  means  of  a 
lever  J  when  desired.  K  is  a  perforated  pipe  surrounding 
the  step  F  and  connected  with  a  pipe  K1.  The  effect  of 
admitting  steam  is  to  heat  the  liquid  and  cause  it  to  circu- 
late as  indicated  by  the  arrows.  This  circulation  serves  to 
carry  the  '  scale  '  or  foreign  materials  removed  from  the 
metal  surfaces  by  action  of  the  acid  to  the  inclined  bottom 
of  the  tank,  from  which  it  can  be  removed  by  opening  the 
valve  I  from  time  to  time.  The  bottom  a  of  the  tank  is 
inclined  towards  the  valve,  so  that  when  it  is  open  the 
escaping  fluid  carries  with  it  all  the  deposited  sediment." 

"The  tubes  or  rods,  after  being  pickled,  instead  of  being 
oiled  as  is  usually  done,  are,  according  to  this  invention, 


118 


THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 


coated  with  paraffin  wax  or  like  material  by  immersing  them 
in  a  tank  in  which  it  is  kept  in  a  melted  condition  by  the 
heat  of  a  steam  coil  or  jacket.  By  using  paraffin  or  such 


FIG. 


like  material  which  sets  solid  on  the  pipe  or  rod,  instead  of 
employing  oil  which  is  easily  rubbed  off,  the  coated  articles 
can  be  kept  in  store  before  being  subjected  to  drawing,  still 
retaining  the  lubricant,  and  when  they  are  drawn  the 


IKON   AND   STEEL  TUBES.  119 

lubricant  scales  off  and  can  be  collected  for  future  use, 
whereas  oil,  when  employed  for  lubricating  the  articles, 
becomes  lost  and  covers  the  tools  and  workshop  with  masses 
of  waste  oil." 


STEEL  FOR  WELDLESS  TUBE  MANUFACTURE. 

In  his  paper  on  the  manufacture  of  weldless  steel  tubes 
by  the  Mannesmann  process,  read  in  April,  1902,  before  the 
South  Wales  Institute  of  Engineers,  Mr.  J.  H.  H.  Barree,  in 
referring  to  the  selection  of  the  material,  said:  "The  steel 
must  be  ductile,  and  must  also  possess  considerable  tensile 
strength,  varying  with  the  class  of  tube  to  be  made.  Homo- 
geneity is  very  essential,  and  it  must  also  be  free  from  the 
following  defects,  to  which  mild  steel  is  liable  :  blowholes, 
which  afterwards  become  blisters;  rooks,  which  develop  into 
external  laps  and  laminations ;  and  scabs,  which  cause 
unequal  thickness  when  the  tube  is  rolled  out.  Another 
reason  which  renders  the  selection  of  the  steel  of  great 
importance  is  the  multitude  of  specifications  with  which  the 
tube  manufacturer  has  to  deal,  almost  every  engineer  having 
his  own  pet  theories  on  the  subject,  and  each  Government 
department  having  its  own  special  requirements.  It  is, 
therefore,  absolutely  necessary  that  the  tube  maker  should 
possess  to  a  certain  extent  the  knowledge  of  the  steel  manu- 
facturer. Fortunately  the  British  steel  manufacturer  is 
now  beginning  to  realise  that  the  steel  tube  trade  is  a  large 
and  important  consumer  and  is  able  to  supply  suitable 
material  for  ordinary  work,  but  for  the  highest  class  tubing 
in  cold-drawn  finish  the  tube  manufacturer  has  mainly  to 
rely  upon  the  Swedish  steel  makers." 

In  connection  with  the  foregoing  it  may  here  be  observed 
that  a  few  years  ago  the  Admiralty,  with  a  little  regard 
perhaps  to  the  encouragement  of  home  industries  but  a 
greater  consideration  for  convenience  of  inspection  and  test- 
ing during  manufacture,  attempted  to  compel  the  employment 
of  nothing  but  British  steel  in  the  manufacture  of  weldless 
boiler  tubes.  It  was  found,  however,  not  from  any  want  of 
skill  on  the  part  of  the  British  steel  makers  but  because  of 
the  natural  qualities  of  the  raw  materials,  both  ore  and  fuel, 


120  THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 

available  in  Sweden,  that  to  insist  on  such  a  condition  was 
not  in  the  best  interests  of  the  Service  and  occasioned  much 
trouble  and  loss  to  our  steel-tube  manufacturers.  It  was 
accordingly  withdrawn. 

Some  tensile  tests  which  we  made  on  three  test  pieces 
prepared  from  as  many  billets  of  Swedish  steel  for  use  in 
the  manufacture  of  cycle  tubes  gave  the  following  results  : — 

Ultimate  load.  Elongation  in  8  in.         Reduction  of  area. 

A....32'29tonspersq.  inch.  ...     19 '5  per  cent.  ...     57'3  per  cent. 
B.... 37-93             „                            20-0       „  42'1       „ 

C.... 32-49  „  26-5       „  55'5       „ 

A  chemical  analysis  on  borings  taken  from  these  samples 
gave  the  following : — 

A.  B.  c. 

Carbon 0'283  per  cent.  ...  0 "3 53  per  cent.  ...  0'213  per  cent. 

Silicon 0-034       „  0'052       „  0'047       „ 

Sulphur   ...  0-017       „  0-017       „  0'021       „ 

Phosphorus  0'002       „  0'002       „  0'002       „ 

Manganese.  0'262       „  0'297       „  0'316 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  sample  B  (containing  a  com- 
paratively high  percentage  of  carbon)  has  a  tensile  strength 
considerably  in  excess  of  the  samples  A  and  C.  In  the 
manufacture  of  tubes  from  the  steel  represented  by  theso 
samples  great  trouble  was  experienced  in  the  cold  drawing 
and  much  waste  through  defective  places  in  the  steel  and 
the  consequent  splitting  of  the  tubes  at  such  places  during 
reduction  to  the  required  gauge.  The  conclusion  arrived  at 
was  that  steel  such  as  that  represented  by  the  sample  B  was 
unsuitable  for  the  production  of  thin  gauge  tubing  as  required 
for  cycles. 

It  is  important  to  remember,  however,  that  very  low 
carbon  and  soft  steels  such  as  may  be  quite  suitable  in  tubes 
for  other  services,  may  be  useless  for  cycle  tubes,  as  in  addi- 
tion to  being  insufficiently  rigid  to  resist  the  stresses 
imposed  upon  them  in  a  cycle  frame,  the  hot  spelter,  during 
the  brazing  of  the  frame  joints,  may  burn  through  the  thin, 
metal. 

Some  steels  employed  for  the  construction  of  cycle  tubing, 
and  that  of  excellent  quality,  vary  very  considerably  in 


IRON  AND  STEEL   TUBES.  121 

composition  from  the  samples  above  named.  In  particular  the 
percentage  of  silicon  and  phosphorus  may  be  much  higher, 
the  former  element  being  sometimes  present  to  the  extent  of 
slightly  more  than  0*5  per  cent.  The  carbon  may  also 
amount  to  J  per  cent  and  the  manganese  exceed  the  per- 
centage named  in  the  above  tests. 

The  tests  recorded  hereunder  were  made  by  the  author  on 
two  annealed  strips,  cut  from  cycle  tubing  of  No.  21  gauge 
(B.W.G.),  which  represents  a  thickness  of  0-034  in.  : — 

Ultimate  tensile  load.  Elongation  in  8  in. 

26 '67  tons  per  square  inch     12'5  per  cent. 

28-24     „  „         „  lO'O         „ 

A  chemical  analysis  gave  the  carbon  as  0*290  per  cent. 

For  boiler  tubes  a  very  mild  steel  is  generally  employed. 
The  British  Admiralty  very  wisely  leave  to  the  makers  the 
chemical  composition  of  the  metal  for  cold-drawn  boiler 
tubes,  but  call  for  a  tensile  strength  in  the  annealed  billet  of 
21  to  24  tons  per  square  inch,  with  an  elongation  of  33  per 
•cent  in  2  in.  Strips  cut  from  the  tube,  which  may  be 
annealed  before  testing,  are  required  to  show  a  tensile 
strength  not  exceeding  26  tons  per  square  inch,  with  27  per 
cent  extension  in  2  in. 

Steel  having  a  carbon  percentage  as  low  as  '01  to  *015  per 
cent  has  been  employed  for  cold-drawn  seamless  tubes.  It 
has  been  suggested  that  a  mild  steel  with  but  such  an 
•exceedingly  low  percentage  of  carbon  (less  than  is  usually 
present  in  wrought  iron)  might  more  appropriately  be 
termed  "ingot  iron." 


CHAPTER  XI. 
WELDED   TUBES. 

WKOUGHT  iron  tubes  for  the  conveyance  of  gas,  water,  and 
steam  are  still  chiefly  made  according  to  the  methods  intro- 
duced in  the  first  half  of  last  century.  Various  improve- 
ments have  been  effected  in  the  machinery  and  appliances 


122  THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 

employed,  but  the  processes  followed  are  substantially  the 
same  as  were  evolved  and  established  in  and  around 
Wednesbury  by  James  Whitehouse,  the  Messrs.  Russell, 
and  others,  between  1827  and  1850. 

Whether  butt-welded  or  lap-welded  tubes  are  required,  the 
manufacturer  must  first  obtain  bis  rolled  "strip"  from  the 
ironmaster  and  convert  the  same  into  the  "  skelp  "  or  open 
jointed  tubular  form. 

Butt-welded  tubes  are  listed  by  the  makers  as  small  as 
one-eighth  of  an  inch  internal  diameter.  Lap-welded  tubes 
are  internally  supported  by  a  plug  or  mandrel  or  its  equiva- 
lent during  welding,  and  cannot,  therefore,  be  obtained  of  so 
small  a  diameter.  The  ordinary  minimum  internal  diameter 
of  lap-welded  tubes  is  about  one  inch. 

The  following  description  of  the  manufacture  of  lap- 
welded  iron  tubes,  as  set  forth  in  Thomas  Henry  Russell's 
specification,  No.  10816  of  the  year  1845,  may  be  of 
interest : — <k  The  tubular  skelp,  drawn  from  a  furnace  at  a 
welding  heat,  is  placed  upon  a  mandrel,  or  what  the  inventor 
terms  a  'beak-iron,'  which  has  a  working  surface  of  steel, 
and  is  rigidly  fixed  at  one  end  in  a  horizontal  position,  its 
free  end  projecting  over  a  draw-bench.  The  free  end  of  this 
beak-iron  affords  the  necessary  resistance  and  support  when 
the  lap-joint  of  the  tube,  in  order  to  weld  it,  is  pressed  upon 
by  a  roller,  whilst  the  tube  is  drawn  off  the  beak-iron  by  the 
action  of  the  draw-chain,  to  which  the  grippers  that 
have  hold  of  the  tube  are  attached.  This  system  of  work- 
ing answers  for  tubes  of  large  size,  which  are  welded  thereby 
at  two  operations,  one-half  at  a  time.  In  making  small 
tubes  the  mandrel,  or  beak-iron,  is  required  to  be  longer  and 
of  small  diameter,  and,  consequently,  as  there  is  not  suffi- 
cient substance  to  support  the  tube  and  its  own  weight 
horizontally  without  deflection,  it  is  supported  by  a  roller 
beneath  the  tube,  whilst  the  welding  roller  above  is  operat- 
ing upon  the  seam,  the  draw-chain  dragging  the  tube 
forward.  The  skelp  in  this  case  is  drawn  direct  from  the 
furnace  on  to  the  beak- iron." 

The  steam  tubes  of  leading  makers  are  one  gauge  thicker 
than  water  tubes,  and  the  latter  one  gauge  thicker  than  gas 
tubes.  The  particulars  given  hereunder  are  from  the  pub- 


IRON  AND    STEEL   TUBES. 


123- 


AlAH(NO^COTtl4tlOt-OO 

a 

* 

^     .      .      . 
M          33 

§ 

igs 

S-    «*  01        ,-H         O         C~.         00        t~         -O         O        O 

i 

CO 

i  O  ^•^oojrtMOJOTfcor-.oboi'' 

I) 

-j          « 

SJ         a-i-S2§S^ilSSlSgg* 

•S3         a 

^_ 
-s    . 

'OC503t~t~t^-OO 

•M|  °         S?»??rP???*??»?>5? 

•^""*-1  rHrH(MCO«eOOOt~ 

H 

s 
~  oo 

2 
<8 

o 

H 

C5         JO         00         CC         l~        t~        t~        t~ 


124  THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 

lished  lists  of  Messrs.  John  Spencer  Limited,  of  Globe  Tube 
Works,  Wednesbury : — 

The  thickness  of  metal  provided  (and  the  list  may  be 
taken  as  typical  of  the  sizes  adopted  by  the  leading  makers), 
affords  a  far  greater  factor  of  safety  than  would  appear 
necessary  from  a  consideration  merely  of  the  bursting  stress 
to  be  resisted.  Let  us,  as  an  example,  examine  a  one  inch 
internal  diameter  gas  pipe.  The  bursting  force  is  given  by 
multiplying  the  internal  pressure  per  square  inch  by  the 
internal  diameter  or  bore  in  inches.  Thus  as  a  one  inch 
pipe  is  of  unit  bore,  the  pressure  per  square  inch  will  also 
be  the  bursting  effort,  and  if  the  ultimate  tensile  strength  of 
the  iron  be  "20  tons  per  square  inch  (it  should  not  be  less), 
the  pressure  required  to  burst  a  pipe  having  a  weld  equal  in 
strength  to  the  strip  itself  will  be — 

20  x  (-128  x  2)  =  5-12  tons  per  square  inch. 

The  actual  pressure  of  the  gas  conveyed  by  the  pipes  will  in 
most  cases  not  reach  as  many  pounds.  But  the  weld  will 
by  no  means  come  up  to  the  stated  condition,  and  indeed,  in 
some  places,  where  through  the  interposition  of  a  particle  of 
scale,  or  for  some  other  reason,  a  true  weld  is  wanting,  the 
tube  may  not  even  be  gas  tight.  Further,  the  screwing  of 
the  tube  ends  will  of  course  reduce  the  effective  thickness 
of  metal  at  such  parts.  All  gas,  water,  and  steam  pipes, 
and  fittings  for  same,  must  therefore  be  subjected  to 
hydraulic  test  before  passing  from  the  works.  Though  for 
gas  tubes  a  test  pressure  as  low  as  50  Ib.  per  square  inch  is 
all  that  is  sometimes  specified  by  buyers,  makers  of  repute 
prefer  to  adopt  a  much  higher  test  pressure  for  all  their 
tubes  and  fittings.  Bayers'  spacifications  for  water  and 
steam  tubes  seldom  call  for  a  hydraulic  test  pressure  of  less 
than  300  Ib.  per  square  inch,  whilst  as  a  test  against  "  cold 
shortness,"  the  tubes  are  required  to  stand  bending  cold 
through  a  right  angle  without  fracture  over  a  rounded  block 
having  a  radius  equal  to  but  twice  the  bore  of  the  tube. 

Butt-welding  is  not  ordinarily  adopted  for  steam  tubes  of 
more  than  2  in.  internal  diameter,  and  in  some  instances 
l^in.  is  the  maximum  size  made  by  butt-welding.  Lap- 
welding  is  more  effective  and  convenient  for  the  larger  sizes. 


IRON  AND    STEEL  TUBES.  12f> 

Lap-welded  boiler  tubes  are  made  of  several  thicknesses 
in  the  same  diameters  to  meet  requirements.  In  fire-tube 
or  tubular  boilers  (as  distinguished  from  water-tube  or 
tubulous  boilers)  the  pressure  acts  upon  the  exterior  of  the 
tubes ;  they  may,  therefore,  be  safely  made  from  thinner 
metal  than  is  necessary  for  the  resistance  of  an  internally 
applied  or  bursting  pressure. 

Turning  now  to  some  recent  patent  specifications  relating 
to  the  manufacture  of  lap-welded  tubes,  the  illustration  at 


FIG.  127. 

fig.  127  is  from  the  specification  No.  17986  of  1898,  of  C. 
Twer,  of  Eschweiter,  Rhenish  Prussia,  shortly  described  as 
follows : — 

"  Wrought-iron  gas  pipes  and  the  like  are  made  with  over- 
lapping edges  in  an  arrangement  such  as  illustrated.  The 
bell  A,  into  which  the  skelp  is  guided,  is  provided  with  the 
mandrel  B,  supported  from  the  pivoted  arm  C.  The  bell, 
which  may  be  in  two  halves,  carries  rollers  T),  mounted  in 
adjustable  bearings.  As  the  skelp  is  drawn  forward  its  two 
overlapping  edges  are  welded.  The  mandrel  may  be  divided 
in  order  to  render  it  elastic  and  to  prevent  a  rupture  of  the 
bell.  To  reduce  friction  a  small  roller  is  sometimes  placed 
in  the  interior  of  the  mandrel  at  the  place  of  contact 
between  the  mandrel  and  the  tube  to  be  welded." 


126 


THE    MANUFACTURE    OF 


Fig.  128  is  from  one  of  several  illustrations  appearing  in 
the  specification  No.  22261  of  1898,  setting  forth  an  inven- 
tion of  E.  E.  Hies,  of  New  York,  the  object  of  which  is 
stated  to  be  the  production  of  "  tubing  in  which  the  meeting 
edges  are  welded  together  in  such  a  manner  that  the  tubing 
may  be  re-drawii 'cold  without  weakening  the  joint,  a  process 
only  possible  heretofore  with  ingot  or  weldless  formed 
tubing.  A  further  object  is  to  utilise  the  heating  effect  of 
an  electric  current  or  currents  for  producing  an  electrically 
welded  or  brazed  seam  during  the  process  of  forming  tubes 
of  this  character,  by  which  the  heat  is  locally  applied  and 


FIG.  128. 

the  heated  metal  protected  to  a  very  appreciable  extent  from 
oxidation  and  products  of  combustion,  thus  materially 
increasing  the  perfection  and  strength  of  the  seam,  and 
making  this  portion  of  the  tube  practically  as  strong  or 
stronger  than  any  other  portion.  1  am  also  enabled  by  my 
improvements  to  manufacture  tubes  substantially  equal  in 
all  respects,  as  regards  strength  and  appearance,  to  seamless 
drawn  tubing,  while  at  the  same  time  diminishing  greatly 
the  cost  of  production,  both  with  respect  to  the  number  of 
operations  required,  the  increased  uniformity  of  the  product, 
the  saving  effected  in  the  original  cost  of  the  plant,  and  of 
greater  economy  in  the  use  of  heat." 

Referring  to  the  illustration  at  fig.  128,  "  the  metal  strip 
1  is  passed  round  a  mandrel  3,  and  through  a  die  2,  to 
form  it  into  the  tube  4.  A  cooling  fluid  is  circulated 


IRON   AND   STEEL   TUBES.  127 

through  a  chamber  in  the  die.  The  edges  of  the  strip  are 
brought  to  a  welding  temperature  by  passing  an  electric 
current  through  the  carbon  rod  5,  the  metal  strip,  the  die, 
and  back  to  the  battery  or  other  source.  The  die  presses  the 
heated  edges  of  the  strip  so  that  they  are  welded  together, 
and  the  tube  is  prevented  from  collapsing  by  the  mandrel. 
A  hand  wheel  and  other  gearing  are  provided  to  draw  the 
strip  through  the  die.  The  die  may  be  fitted  with  rollers, 
and  the  mandrel  may  have  .  a  roller  fitted  in  its  head.  The 
tube  may  be  heated  after  passing  through  the  die,  which 
subjects  it  to  a  slight  drawing  process.  The  weld  is  com- 
pleted by  passing  the  tube  through  a  '  welding  clamp,' 
consisting  of  two  hinged  jaws  which  squeeze  the  tube/'' 

The  production  of  lap-welded  tubes  by  a  rolling-mill  is 
described  in  the  specification  No.  16550  of  1899,  of  E. 
Johnson,  of  Wednesbury,  the  invention  comprising  a  movable 
guide  adapted  for  the  guidance  of  the  work  into  either  the 
preliminary  or  the  final  welding  groove  or  pass  of  the  rolls. 
The  process  is  described  as  follows  : — "  Skelps  with  lap- 
joints  having  been  made,  they  are  placed  upon  mandrels  and 
heated  in  a  heating  furnace,  of  the  ordinary  kind,  in  front  of 
the  rolls.  A  heated  skelp,  or  partly-made  tube,  is  conveyed 
from  the  furnace  into  the  trough  guide  in  front  of  the  first 
groove  or  hole  in  the  rolls  by  which  it  is  guided  to  the  paid 
groove ;  it  is  then  seized  by  the  said  groove  and  its  joint 
partly  welded.  The  tube  passed  through  the  rolls  is 
returned  to  the  furnace  and  conveyed  a  second  time  to  the 
guide  and  first  groove  in  the  rolls  for  further  welding  if 
necessary  or  desirable.  The  position  of  the  movable  tongue 
or  guide  check  being  reversed,  a  trough  guide  is  formed  in 
front  of  the  second  groove  or  hole  in  the  rolls,  and  the  partly 
welded  tube  having  been  re-heated  is  passed  one  or  more 
times  through  the  second  groove  or  hole  to  finish  or  perfect 
the  welding  of  the  joint.  In  this  way  long  tubes  can  be 
readily  welded  at  one  operation,  that  is,  before  the  tubes  are 
allowed  to  cool.  The  welded  tubes  are  straightened  in  the 
ordinary  way." 


128  THE   MANUFACTURE    OF 


CHAPTER  XII. 

THE  PRODUCTION  OF  TUBES  DIRECT  FROM  PILED  HOLLOW 
BLOOMS. 

THOUGH  the  manufacture  of  tubes  for  the  conveyance  of  gas, 
steam,  and  water,  and  for  other  purposes,  by  skelping  and 
welding  rolled  iron  strips  on  the  systems  of  Whitehouse 
and  others,  has  been  followed  for  so  many  years,  various 
inventors  in  this  and  other  countries  have  felt  that  a  more 
direct  system  is  needed  and  have  striven  for  such  a  system. 
To  produce  "tube  strip"  from  the  rough  "puddled  bars," 
or  "  muck  bars "  as  they  are  termed  in  America,  much 
rolling  is  necessary.  But  if  during  such  rolling  the  hot 
crude  metal  which  is  thereby  subjected  to  the  necessary 
compressive  working  or  forging  to  bring  it  to  condition  can 
be  made  into  a  tubular  instead  of  a  flat  strip  form,  an 
enormous  saving  is  apparent.  The  very  statement  of  the 
problem  may  appear  to  give  the  solution.  There  are,  how- 
ever, various  practical  difficulties  which  may  in  part  be 
appreciated  when  it  is  remembered  that  in  "puddled  bars" 
or  "  muck  bars "  we  have  the  iron  in  an  exceedingly  crude 
condition  and  containing  a  considerable  admixture  of 
impurities.  These  impurities  in  the  rolling  of  the  bars, 
become  squeezed  towards  the  edges,  so  that  at  such  parts  it 
is  particularly  difficult  to  effect  welding. 

Further,  anything  in  the  nature  of  wiring,  banding,  or 
other  similar  means  for  holding  a  pile  of  the  bars  together 
to  form  a  hollow  bloom  or  inchoate  tube  has  been  found 
altogether  inadmissible.  Such  a  method  of  securing  the 
components  of  a  "  pile  "  or  "  faggot  "  may  be  employed 
when  the  subsequent  initial  welding,  after  removal  from  the 
furnace,  is  effected  under  a  steam  hammer ;  it  is  dangerous 
and  unreliable  when  the  pile  has  to  be  passed  through  rolls. 

Fig.  129  illustrates  the  solution  of  the  problem  furnished 
by  H.  Perrins  in  his  specification  No.  22947,  of  1897.  The 
following  description  is  extracted  from  the  specification  : — 

"  In  making  round  section  wrought-iron  or  steel  tubes  in 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES.  129 

accordance  with  my  invention,  I  first  form  what  I  call  a 
piled  hollow  or  tubular  bloom  as  follows  :  In  an  ordinary 
rolling  mill,  with  the  rolls  turned  to  the  proper  shapes,  I 
roll  puddled  iron  bars  or  other  iron  or  mild  steel  bars  to  the 
trough  sections  shown  in  the  figure,  and  so  that  the  com- 
plete self-supporting  pile  may  stand  on  one  of  the  flat  sides 
of  the  outer  bars.  Care  must  be  taken  that  the  edges  of 
the  bars  are  separated  as  illustrated.  The  piled  hollow 


FIG.  129. 

bloom,  as  aforesaid,  is  raised  to  a  welding  heat  in  a  suit- 
able furnace,  being  placed  with  one  of  its  flat  sides  on  the 
furnace  bed.  As  there  are  two  flat  sides,  forming  the  top 
and  bottom  respectively  of  the  pile  or  piled  bloom,  the 
latter  can  be  turned  over  in  the  furnace,  and  will  stand 
steady  on  either  of  the  said  sides  and  thus  be  prevented 
from  rolling  in  the  furnace.  When  at  a  welding  tempera- 
ture, the  pressure  of  the  uppermost  outer  bar  upon  the  inner 
bars  and  the  pressure  of  the  said  inner  bars  upon  the  lower 
outer  bar,  cause  the  parts  to  become  united  or  partiallv 

10ST 


130  THE   MANUFACTURE  OF 

welded  along  their  adjoining  circumferential  surfaces,  and  by 
such  welding  before  removal  from  the  furnace  the  bars  will 
be  secured  and  retained  in  their  proper  relative  positions 
during  the  subsequent  rolling  operation  which  completes  the 
welding.  The  piled  hollow  bloom  is  rolled  down  at  one  heat 
thin  enough  to  form  some  sizes  of  gas,  water,  steam,  or 
other  tubes." 

The  fundamental  feature  of  the  Perrins'  process  is,  as  is 
set  out  in  the  claim  with  which  the  specification  concludes — 
the  manufacture  of  wrought-iron  and  steel  tube  from  hollow 
blooms  formed  by  piles  of  inner  and  outer  bars  so  shaped  and 
arranged  as  to  cause  them  to  hold  together  and  to  unite  in 
the  furnace  when  raised  to  a  welding  temperature. 

CASED  TUBES. 

Brass-cased  tubes,  as  employed  for  bedsteads,  fenders,  and 
the  like,  and  brass-cased  stair  rods  are  said  to  have  been 
invented  by  Sir  Edward  Thomason  in  the  year  1803,  though 
from  the  British  Patent  Records  they  would  appear  to  have 
been  invented,  or  at  any  rate  patented,  a  few  years  later  and 
by  another  person. 

In  the  manufacture  of  cased  tubes,  or  composite  or  con- 
solidated tubes  as  they  are  frequently  termed  in  America, 
efforts  are  made  to  associate  with  the  employment  of  the 
thinnest  possible  case  a  ready  and  convenient  method  of 
effectually  concealing  the  joint.  In  what  is  known  as  "  close 
joint"  cased  tube,  the  edges  of  the  case  are  simply  tucked 
under  the  edges  of  the  tubular  iron  core  or  "  inside  "  ;  the 
joint  is  then  plainly  visible.  In  "brazed  cased  tubes"  the 
case  edges  are  brazed  together.  This  generally  involves  the 
employment  of  a  thicker  case  and  of  metal  of  a  rather 
better  quality  to  enable  it  to  withstand  the  brazing  heat. 
With  a  good  brazed  cased  tube,  however,  the  joint  is  quite 
invisible  after  finishing  and  lacquering.  In  the  manufacture 
of  brazed  cased  tubes  it  was  usual  to  reduce  the  case,  or  the 
metal  to  form  the  case,  to  the  desired  thickness  (or  thinness) 
before  brazing.  But  under  more  recent  practice  thicker 
metal  is  brazed  into  a  case,  which  is  then  drawn  on  a  mandrel 
to  the  finished  gauge  before  placing  over  and  closing  upon  the 
iron  core  or  inside. 


IRON   AND   STEEL   TUBES. 


131 


The  illustrations,  figs.  130,  131,  132,  and  133,  are  from  the 
•specification  No.  566,  of  1899,  filed  on  behalf  of  A.  P. 
Alvord,  of  New  York,  describing  a  method  and  means  for 
the  "making  in  one  operation  from  two  blank  strips  of 
metal  a  compound  tube  consisting  of  a  slotted  hollow  core 
and  a  surrounding  shell  having  flanges  that  project  into 

FIG.  130. 


FIG.  181. 

the  slot  of  the  core."  In  other  words,  it  is  a  method  and 
means  for  making  both  "inside"  and  "case"  together,  and 
simultaneously  uniting  or  closing  the  one  upon  the  other. 
On  the  bed  of  the  machine  three  pairs  of  rolls  are  pivotally 
mounted,  namely,  the  flanging  rolls  bb,  the  upsetting  rolls 
c  c,  and  the  shaping  rolls  d  d,  between  which  the  blank  is 
drawn  by  the  positively  driven  or  power  rolls  e  e.  The 


132  THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 

pivotally  mounted  rolls  can  be  readily  adjusted  to 
accommodate  blanks  of  different  widths.  A  spring-actuated 
presser  roll  /  is  arranged  in  front  of  the  flanging  rolls  b  b,  as 
illustrated.  A  funnel-shaped  former  h  is  placed  between 
the  rolls  c  and  d.  As  shown  at  fig.  132,  the  strip  of  steel  as 
A,  which  is  to  form  the  core  or  "  inside,"  is  placed  upon  a 
wider  strip  of  brass  B,  which  is  to  form  the  case.  According 
to  the  specification,  after  passing  right  through  the  machine 
the  two  strips  will  be  delivered  from  the  rolls  e  e  (which  serve 
not  only  to  draw  the  tube  through  the  machine  but  also  to 
impart  the  final  shape),  as  a  cased  tube  such  as  shown  at 
fig.  133.  The  patent  granted  on  this  specification  has  been 
allowed  to  lapse. 

The  specification  No.  10371,  of  1899,  of  C.  Harvey,  of 
Birmingham,  describes  the  interposition  between  the  casing 
metal  and  the  iron  or  like  foundation,  or  "inside,"  of  soft 
material  such  as  paper,  wood,  felt,  or  a  soft  metal  alloy. 


Fio.  132.  FIG.  133. 

"  The  thin  casing  metal  is,  owing  to  the  soft  packing,  not 
liable  to  sear,  and  sharp  edges  of  well-defined  pattems  or 
sections  may  be  produced  in  the  drawn  or  ornamental 
lengths."  The  invention  set  forth  in  the  specification  No. 
22668,  of  1899,  of  the  same  patentee,  is  described  as  having 
for  its  object  the  production  of  "a  composite  tube  with  a 
brass  or  other  ductile  metal  casing  drawn  on  to  a  non- 
metallic  foundation  or  base  formed  of  paper,  paper  pulp, 
cardboard,  wood  pulp,  or  the  like.  The  said  foundation  is 
fashioned  and  made  solid  by  rolling  or  drawing,  and  is 
afterwards  encased  with  the  metal  casing  by  drawing  on  a 
mandrel,  or  the  foundation  may  be  moulded." 

The  specification  No.  2841,  of  1900,  of  T.  H.  Lawton,  of 
Birmingham,  describes  metal-cased  tubes  in  which  the  edges 
of. the  case  are  secured  by  a  jointing  or  locking  strip. 
"  The  inner  tube  is  placed  within  the  case,  and  in  drawing 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES.  133 

through   the   circular   finishing    die   the  jointing    strip    is 
flattened  within  the  case  strip  and  obscured." 

A  locking  strip  or  clamping  piece  for  securing  the  edges 
of  the  outer  cases,  and  also  of  the  tubular  cores  or 
"insides"  of  cased  tubes,  is  described  in  the  specification 
No.  5378,  of  1897,  of  J.  L.  Wright,  of  Birmingham.  The 
patent  granted  on  this  application  became  void  in  1901. 


134 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


APPENDIX. 

BRITISH  PATENT   SPECIFICATIONS   RELATING  TO   THE  MANU- 
FACTURE OF  IRON  AND  STEEL  TUBES. 

Note. — Where  specifications  have  been  filed  as  communi- 
cations from  abroad,  the  name  given  is  that  of  the  communi- 
cating party,  not  the  formal  applicant  for  Letters  Patent. 

BRAZED    TUBES. 
Name. 

J.  T.  Thompson. 
S.  Walker. 
Earle  and  Bourne. 
R  F.  Hall. 
A.  Farnell. 

Pihlfeldt  and  Garnett. 
C.  H.  Brampton. 
W.  Starley. 
J.  V.  Pugh. 

E.  Beranger  and  another. 
T.  Taylor. 

F.  Moore. 

Gibbs  and  Wright. 
Elkington  and  Fellows. 
F.  A.  Wilmot. 
Taylor  and  Wasdell. 
H.  Adler. 

E.  E.  Ries. 
H.  Du  Cros. 

F.  A.  Wilmot. 
T.  Midgley. 
A.  A.  Steward. 
Jeffrey  and  Moxon. 

BENDING,    STRAIGHTENING,    CORRUGATING,    ETC. 

4425  ...  1877  ...  J.  Farmer.     (Straightening,  etc.) 
4935  ...  1877  ...  S.  Fox.     (Corrugating.) 


No. 

Year. 

5403  ... 

1826.. 

13573  ... 

1851  .. 

4875  ... 

1891  .. 

8494  ... 

1894.. 

20324... 

1895.. 

24338... 

1895  .. 

3955  ... 

1896  .. 

5771  ... 

1896  .. 

10477  ... 

1896  .. 

10688... 

1896.. 

22854... 

1896  .. 

28113... 

1896  .. 

29800... 

1896  .. 

29834  ... 

1896  .. 

6824... 

1897  .. 

16440... 

1897  .. 

20277  ... 

1898  .. 

22261  ... 

1898  .. 

7824... 

1899  .. 

9198... 

1899  .. 

10337  ... 

1899  .. 

11233... 

1899.. 

8180.. 

1901  ... 

IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


135 


No. 

Year. 

4898  ... 

1878 

2316  ... 

1882 

2647  ... 

1882 

840  ... 

1883 

14469  ... 

1884 

5019... 

1885 

14993  ... 

1888 

8948  ... 

1890 

19040... 

1893 

18731  ... 

1894 

20921  ... 

1894 

11406  ... 

1895 

17211  ... 

1895 

18539  ... 

1895 

3349  ... 

1896 

5078  ... 

1896 

7221  ... 

1896 

8417  ... 

1896 

13282... 

1896 

16422  ... 

1896 

20033  ... 

1896 

21739.. 

1896 

22682 
23873 
26255 
26325 
27703 
11569 

13590 

19755 

351 

3951 

10977 

14827 

21592 

22962 


1896 
1896 
1896 
1896 
1896 
1897 

1897 
1897 
1898 
1898 
1898 
1898 
1898 
1898 


Name. 

G.  Matheson.     (Straightening,  etc.) 

J.  Farmer.     (Straightening,  etc.) 

J.  Robertson.     (Polishing,  etc.) 

T.  Drake.     (Coiling.) 

J.  Wilkes.     (Fluting.) 

G.  Round.     (Bending.) 

J.  Shepherd.     (Corrugating.) 

G.  H.  Everson.     (Polishing,  etc.) 

P.  E.  Secretan.     (Corrugating.) 

J.  and  G.  H.  McDongall.     (Bending.) 

W.  B.  Thompson.      (Corrugating.) 

J   and  W.  Pilkington.      (Straightening.) 

G.  Platt.     (Straightening,  polishing,  etc.) 

P.  Baumert.     (Grooved  and  ribbed.) 

S.  Wilkes.     (Bending.) 

T.  A.  Wooldridge.      (Bending.) 

J.  Rees.     (Fluting  or  corrugating.) 

P.  Medart.   (Straightening  and  polishing. ) 

Platts  and  Mather.     (Twisted  tubes.) 

Young  and  Jones.  (Corrugated  cycle  tubes. ) 

S.  Baxter.     (Corrugated  cycle  tubes.) 

Shuttleworth-Browne.     (Corrugated  cycle 

tubes.) 
S.  S.  Sergeant.     (Corrugating.) 

B.  Wesselmann.    (Corrugated  cycle  tubes.) 

F.  E.  Elmore.     (Corrugating.) 
W.  E.  Gregg.     (Bending.) 

W.  Webster.     (Corrugated.) 

Soc.  Anonyme  du  Generateur  du  Temple. 

(Corrugated.) 
J.  Shaw  arid  others.     (Fluted  tubes.) 

G.  Brandt.     (Bending.) 

S.  Frank.     (Corrugating.) 
H.  Norris.     (Corrugating.) 
E.  Marim.     (Corrugating.) 

C.  Weber.     (Bending  and  straightening.) 
H.  Lefevere.     (Bending.) 

L.    II.    Brightman.       (Straightening   and 
polishing.) 


136 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


No.  .  Year.  Name. 

1142  ...  1900  ...  C.  R.  McKibben.     (Bending.) 
23827  ...  1900  ...  Robertson  and  Robertson.     (Bending.) 
2924  ...  1901  ...  J.  Bradley.     (Bending.) 
3231  ...  1901  ...  F.  G.  Hampson.     (Bending.) 
16197  ...  1901  ...  E.  J.  Post.     (Bending.) 
16648  ...  1901  ...  G.  Platt.     (Straightening,  etc.) 
18272  ...  1901  ...  J.  W.  Walsh.     (Corrugating.) 
2432..    1902  ...  J.  Earle      (Bending.) 
2482  ...  1902  ...  F.  Monkemoller.     (Bending.) 
11732  ...  1902  ...  M.  Sensenschmidt.     (Bending.) 
26266  ...  1902  ...  W.  W.  Benson.     (Bending.) 
576  ...  1903  ...  T.  F.  Ash.     (Ornamental.) 

CASED    OR    COMPOSITE. 

(See  also  metal  and  other  lined  or  coated  tubes.) 

..  J.  T.  Thompson. 
..  J.  Cutler. 
..  R.  W.  Winfield. 
..  J.  Hudson. 
..  H.  Sheldon. 

H.  S.  Whitehouse. 
.  J.  L.  Wright. 
.  Tonks  Limited  and  Revill. 
.  T.  H.  Lawton. 
.  A.  P.  Alvoid. 
.  C.  Harvey. 
.  A.  Schmitz. 
.  A.  Schmitz. 
.  C.  Harvey. 
.  T.  H.  Lawton. 
.  E.  Madeley  and  others. 
.  H.  Knight. 

CLOSE    JOINT    OR    OPEN    JOINT. 

5208...  1825...  W.  Hancock. 
12500  ...  1849  ...J.  Cutler. 
871  ...  1857...  J.  J.  Russell. 
1769  ...  1857  ...G.  H.  M.  Muntz 


5403  ... 

1826  .. 

12500... 

1849  .. 

2234  ... 

1854  .. 

1386... 

1884.. 

26367... 

1896.. 

2448... 

1897.. 

5378  ... 

1897.. 

15789  ... 

1897  .. 

21406  ... 

1898  .. 

566  ... 

1899  .. 

10371  ... 

1899.., 

21699  ... 

1899  .. 

22628... 

1899  ... 

22668  ... 

1899  ... 

2841  ... 

1900  .. 

3711  ... 

1900  ... 

11035  .. 

1902.. 

IRON   AND    STEEL   TUBES. 


137 


No. 

Year. 

128 

...  1863 

1973 

...  1867 

3952 

...  1868 

2294 

...  1869 

2869 

...  1870, 

3360 

...  1870 

2542 

...  1871  , 

3462 

...  1874 

3577 

...  1875 

3853 

...  1875  , 

3913 

...  1875  , 

184 

...  1880. 

446 

...  1881  . 

7034 

...  1885  . 

6262 

...  1886, 

10149 

...  1891  . 

8563 

...  1894  . 

14336 

...  1894  , 

1484 

...  1897  . 

8180 

...  1901  . 

12262 

...  1901  . 

18703 

...  1901  . 

576 

...  1903  . 

1415 

...  1873  . 

1376 

...  1878  . 

5177 

...  1883  . 

3187 

...  1884  . 

10640 

...  1886  . 

19230 

...  1891  . 

7383 

...  1896  . 

12173 

...  1896  . 

17581 

...  1896  . 

22695 

...  1896  . 

7524 

...  1897  . 

28804 

...  1897  . 

28805 

...  1897  . 

21406 

,.  1898  . 

Name. 

,  Hulse  and  Hains. 
,  G.  C.  Smith. 
.  J.  B.  Clow. 
.  T.  F.  Taylor. 

A.  Ballantyne. 
,  A.  and  J.  Stewart  and  another. 

J.  Huggins. 

J.  Huggins. 
,  Brownhill  and  Smith. 

Brownhill  and  Smith. 

Brownhill  and  Smith. 

C.  E.  Smith. 

( 1assels  and  Morton. 

E.  Dixon. 

F.  Huggins. 
F.  Huggins. 
Broughton  and  Fieldhouse. 

F.  Huggins. 
Frick  and  Price. 
Jeffrey  and  Moxon. 
Post,  E.  J. 

J.  Earle. 
T.   F.  Ash. 

LOCK    JOINT. 

S.  R.  Wilmot. 
E.  Quadling. 
Gaskell  and  Exton. 

G.  S.  Marshall. 
W.  Allman. 
Earle  and  Bourne. 
T.  S.  James. 

W.  J.  Goddard  and  others. 

Fraser  and  Abrahams. 

M.  Ferguson. 

E.  J.  Post. 

M.  Ferguson. 

M.  Ferguson. 

T.  H.  Lawton. 


138 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


Name. 

L.  Carbone. 
ffrey  and  Moxon. 
Hancox. 
H.  Hoskins. 
nston  and  Porritt. 
.  1902  ...  W.  H.  Washington  and  others. 

COILED    OR    SPIRAL    STRIP. 

W.  Beasley. 

A.  S.  and  F.  S.  Bolton. 

W.  Childs. 

E.  Brooks. 

G.  Paulding. 

Stewart  and  Pirie. 

G.  H.  Fox. 

E.  Deeley. 

M.  Rose/ 

W.  James. 

G.   Round. 

Coas  and  others. 

J.  B.  Root. 

J.  B.  Root. 

J.  H.  Breeze. 

J.  Wustenhofer. 

W.  Schroeder. 

W.  Hillman. 

A.  Prim. 

H.  Ehrdardt. 

H.  Perrins.     (Welded.) 

T.  Midgley. 

E.  T.  Wainwright.     (Welded.) 

J.  A.  Orichton. 

Kane  and  Taylor. 

E.  T.  Greenfield. 

METAL  AND  OTHER  LINED  OR  COATED  TUBES. 

(See  also  cased  or  composite  tubes.) 

.  Palmer.     (Glass  lining  or  coating.) 


No. 

Year. 

522 

...  1900.. 

8180 

...  1901  .. 

19984 

...  1901  .. 

6493 

...  1902  .. 

7200 

...  1902  .. 

14801 

...  1902  .. 

14163 

...  1852  .. 

839 

...  1854.. 

2346 

...1854.. 

1603 

...  1857  .. 

1352 

...  1878.. 

2075 

...  1879  .. 

4211 

...  1883  .. 

297 

...  1884.. 

218 

...  1885  .. 

532 

...  1885  .. 

5019 

...  1885  .. 

8635 

,.1886  .. 

9951 

...  1886  .. 

9952 

...  1886  .. 

5246 

...  1888.. 

14532 

...  1889.. 

15351 

...1889  .. 

82 

...  1892  .. 

5134 

...  1897  .. 

11311 

...  1897.. 

11406 

...  1898.. 

10337 

...  1899  .. 

18623 

...  1899  .. 

12731 

...  1900.. 

9111 

...  1901  .. 

22261 

...  1902.. 

METAL  A! 

(See 

11377 

...  1846  .. 

12500 

..  1849.. 

IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


139- 


No. 

Year. 

13133  ... 

1850 

1655  ... 

1884 

17125... 

1896 

4478  ... 

1897 

29006  ... 

1897 

30357  ... 

1897 

8394... 

1898 

18969  ... 

1898 

23179  ... 

1898 

5977  ... 

1899 

9057  ... 

1899 

10294... 

1899 

13844  ... 

1899 

874... 

1900 

10006  ... 

1900 

11981  ... 

1900 

22791  ... 

1900 

3292  ... 

1902 

7886... 

1902 

3740  ... 

1813 

2181  ... 

1853 

1343... 

1854 

3066  ... 

1861 

541  ... 

1864 

3156  ... 

1870 

1140  ... 

1874 

1449  ... 

1876 

6100... 

1885 

15308... 

1885 

13357  ... 

1888 

1598... 

1889 

13396  ... 

1889 

17090  ... 

1892 

19176  ... 

1892 

8205  ... 

1894 

22733  ... 

1894 

6780... 

1895 

Name. 

.  Everitt  and  Glydon. 

.  T.  B.  Sharp. 

,  E.  T.  Greenfield. 

,  A.  C.  Wright. 

.  A.  E.  Hills. 

.  H.  Lamoisse.     (Celluloid  coating.) 

,  H.  W.  Davies.     (Lead  coating). 

,  E.  J.  Braddock. 

H.  W.  Davies. 
,  S.  S.  Walker. 
.  E.  J.  M.  La  Combe.     (Silver  coating. ) 

Hinds  and  Lewis. 

G.  H.  Everson. 

L.  G.  Bandelot. 

S.  E.  Howell. 

Beck  and  Townsend. 

J.  A.  Crane. 

J.  Reynolds. 

W.  Greaves. 

TAPER. 

H.  Osborne. 

F.  Potts. 

Reeves  and  Wells. 
Russell  and  Brown. 

G.  P.  Harding. 
H.  Kesterton. 
Hoskins  and  Harvey. 
T.  Rickett. 

Hughes,  Johnson,  and  Blakemore. 
H.  Waters. 
W.  Pilkington. 
W.  Lorenz. 
W.  H.  Butler. 
Pilkington  and  others. 
Pilkington  and  others. 
Faulkner  and  others. 
Faulkner  and  others. 
Deutsche  metallpatronenfabrik. 


140 


THE   MANUFACTURE  OF 


No. 

Year. 

Name. 

17032 

...  1896 

...  A.  H.  Hiisener. 

21865 

...1896 

...  H.  0.  Harris. 

3597 

...  1897 

...  F.  J.  Seyfried. 

3911 

...  1898 

.  .  .  Lones  and  Holden. 

2666 

...  1899 

...  H.  J.  Waddie. 

3157 

...  1899 

...  E.  Bock. 

5985 

...  1899 

...T.  B.  Sharp. 

5355 

...  1901 

...  A.  M.  Reynolds. 

7877 

...  1901 

...  W.  Schwiethal. 

9888 

...  1901 

...E.  Bock. 

21180 

...  1902 

...A.  Mauser. 

BUTTED    OR   VARYING    THICKNESS. 

11095 

...  1891 

...  Taylor  and  Challen. 

21822 

...  1893 

...  C.  L.  Stiff. 

9803 

...  1894 

...  Clarendon  Tube  Co.  and  another. 

10803 

...  1897 

...  E.  Ivins. 

18121 

...  1897 

...  A.  E.  Beck. 

18307 

...  1897 

...T.  B.  Sharp. 

24931 

...  1897 

...  Reynolds  and  Hewitt. 

27200 

...  1897 

...B.  Rose. 

28160 

...  1897 

...S.  E.  Howell. 

30451 

...1897 

...  R.  C.  Stiefel. 

27215 

...  1898 

...  H.  J.  Brookes  and  others. 

8749 

...  1901 

...T.  B.  Sharp. 

D   AND    OVAL    SECTIONS. 

8205 

...  1894 

.  .  .  Faulkner  and  others. 

13137 

...  1896 

.  .  .  Ames  and  Stokes. 

17549 

...  1896 

...F.  A.  Walton. 

22758 

...  1896 

...  C.  T.  B.  Sangster. 

22854 

...  1896 

...  T.  Taylor. 

13843 

...  1897 

...  New  Brotherton  Tube  Co.  and  others. 

WELDED. 

3590 

...1812 

...H.  Osborn. 

3617 

...  1812 

...  H.  Osborn. 

4105 

...  1817 

...  H.  Osborn. 

4191 

..  1817 

.  .  J.  F.  Ohabannes. 

IRON  AND  STEEL  TUBES. 


141 


No.      Year. 

4892  ...  1824  ., 

5109...  1825. 

6097  ...  1831 

6995  ...  1836. 

7081  ..  1836  . 

8454  ...  1840., 

9140...  1841  . 

9287  ...  1842  . 

9723. ..1843  .. 

10122  ...  1844  . 

10272  ...  1844  ., 

10380...  1844  ., 

10546  ...  1845  .. 

10621  ...  1845.. 

10649...  1845  ., 

10696...  1845  .. 


10710 

10816 

11197 

11360 

12021 

12158 

12918 

13035 

13130 

586 

819 

3017 

2527 

1223 

1610 

2251 


1845  .. 

1845  .. 

1846  .. 
1846  .. 
1848  .. 
1848  .. 
1850.. 
1850  .. 
1850  .. 
1852  .. 

1852  .. 

1853  .. 
1855.. 
1856  .. 
1856  .. 
1856  .. 

2827p.p.l856  .. 

72...  1857  .. 

2685  ...  1858  .. 

2765p.p.l858  .. 

329. ..I860.. 

1552...  1860  .. 

2941  ...  1860  .. 


Name, 

J.  J.  Russell. 
C.  Whitehouse. 
,  G.  Royle. 
,  Harvey  and  Brown. 
T.  H.  Russell. 
R.  Prosser. 
J.  Cutler. 

Russell  and  Whitehouse. 
J.  Roose. 
J.  Hardy. 

J.  J.  and  T.  H.  Russell. 
J.  Hardy. 
J.  Selby. 
G.  Royle. 
R.  Prosser. 
C.  Whitehouse. 
J.  Hardy. 
T.  H.  Russell. 
W.  Church. 
J.  Roose. 

Cutler  and  Robinson. 
W.  Taylor. 
Cochrane  and  Slate. 
R.  Prosser. 
T.  Deakin. 
G.  F.  Selby. 
J.  Roose. 
A.  F.  Remond. 
T.  Pritchard. 
J.  Cutler. 
A.  Herts. 

Russell  and  Howell. 
L.  W.  Wright, 
Russell  and  Howell. 
S.  Oram. 
S.  Peters. 
E.  Lea. 

J.  E.  Barnsley. 
E.  T.  Hushes. 


142  THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 

No.  Year.  Name. 

52  ...  1862  ...  Jessen  and  others. 
1146  ...  1862...  W.  Rose. 
2626  ...  1862...  E.  Dixon. 
1858  ...  1865  ...  S.  Ring-ley. 
1868  ...  1866  ...  G.  Plant. 
1937  ...  1867  ...  Galloway  and  Plant. 
2713  ...  1868  ...  J.  Evans. 
3209  ...  1869  ...  G.  Northall. 
1435  ...  1870  ...  E.  Peyton. 
1571  ...  1870  ...  R.  Briggs. 
1799  ...  1870  ...  A.  and  J.  Stewart. 
3391  ...  1870  ...  S.  P.  M.  Tasker. 
3440  ...  1873  ...  J.  Fairbanks.     (Hollow  pile.) 
1024  ...  1874  ...  J.  Evans. 
3415  ...  1874  ...  G.  H.  M.  Muntz. 

209  ...  1875  ...  J.  C.  Johnson. 

290...  1875  ...H.  Bristow. 
1562  ...  1875  ...T.  P.  Allen. 
2765  ...  1875  ...  H.  Kesterton. 
10  ...  1876  ...  T.  P.  Allen. 

756p.p.l876  ...  R.  A.  Malcolm. 
2152  ...  1876  ...  E.  Deeley. 
1202  ...  1877  ...  Peyton  and  Bourne. 
2906p.p.l877  ...  E.  Roden. 

30  ...  1878  ...  J.  McDougall. 
4946  ...  1878  ...  McKenzie  and  Perkins. 
4964  ...  1878  ...  Selby  and  Garter. 

514  ...  1879  ...  W.  Brawnhill. 
4022  ...  1879  ...  A.  and  J.  Stewart  and  another. 

184  ...  1880  ...  C.  E.  Smith. 
1254  ...  1880  ...  J.  Hooven. 

446  ...  1881  ...  Oassels  and  Morton. 
1806  ...  1881  ...  H.  von  Hartz  and  O.  Fix. 
2998  ...  1881  ...  A.  A.  Murphy.     (Hollow  pile.) 
3041  ...  1881  ...  A.  A.  Murphy.     (Hollow  pile.; 
1005  ...  1882  ...  W.  H.  Wood. 
2157  ...  1883  ...  E.  Quadling. 
3152  ...  1884  ...  J.  Pumphery. 
16689  ...  1884  ...  Jones  and  Smith. 


IRON  AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


143 


No. 

Year. 

3344... 

1885  .. 

7034  ... 

1885.. 

13628  ... 

1885  .. 

5641  ... 

1890.. 

11374  ... 

1890.. 

20478  ... 

1890.. 

1208... 

1891  .. 

3706  ... 

1891  .. 

4655  ... 

1891  .. 

5808... 

1891  .. 

17250... 

1892  ., 

18007  ... 

1892.. 

15119  ... 

1893  . 

16542  ... 

J893. 

16543  ... 

1893  . 

19289  .. 

1893. 

10948  ... 

1894. 

30544... 

1897  . 

22947  ... 

1897  . 

3332  ... 

1898  . 

17986  ... 

1898  . 

19059... 

1898  . 

22261  ... 

1898  . 

22447  ... 

1898. 

4312  ... 

1899  . 

4410, 

7116 

7117, 

9662 

16550 

16755 

21699 

22685 

4996 

5867 

8966 

18386 

3830 


.  1899 
.  1899 
.  1899 
.  1899 
.  1899 
.  1899 
.  1899 
.1899 
..  1900 
.  1900 
,.  1900 
,.  1900 
,.  1901 


Name. 

.  E.  Dixon. 
.  E.  Dixon. 
.  J.  A.  Crane. 
, .  H.  Howard. 
.  W.  R.  Comings. 
.  W.  Brownhill. 
..  J.  H.  Bevingtoii. 
,.  D.  Muckley. 
. .  W.  Brownhill. 
..  Wotherspoon  and  others. 
. .  J.  E.  and  H.  Howard. 
..  K.  Button. 
..  A.  H.  Williams. 
..  Babcock  and  Wilcox. 
. .  Babcock  and  Wilcox. 
. .  W.  Allman  and  E.  Deeley. 
. .  J.  P.  Serve. 

..  0.  Parpart.     (Electric  welding.) 
..  H.  Perrins.     (Direct  from  piled  bars.) 
..  A.  Pilkington. 
. .  C.  Twer. 

..  Minton  and  Brookes. 
..  E.  E.  Hies. 
..  C.  Puff. 
..  (.I.  T.  Thompson.     (Electric  Welding 

Manufacturing  Company. ) 
..  Yanstone  and  McGuiuness. 
..  T.  J.  Bray.     (Bench.) 
..  T.  J.  Bray. 
. .  Rushton  and  Baldwin. 
..  E.  Johnson. 
..  H.  Perrins. 
..A.  Schmitz. 

...A.  Pilkington.     (Iron  and  steel.) 
,..  J.  C.  Nickling.     (Pile.) 
...  K.  Perrins. 
. ..  A.  L.  Murphy. 
...  F.  Billing  and  others. 
.    H.  Perrins. 


144 


THE  MANUFACTURE   OF 


No. 

Year. 

Name. 

10708 

...1901 

...  H.  Perrins. 

18937 

...  1901 

...  C.Twer. 

1006 

...  1902 

...  T.  F.  Rowland. 

2331 

...  1902 

...  F.  J.  T.  Haskew. 

3234 

...  1902 

...  T.  K.  Barclay. 

26540 

...  1902 

...  National  Tube  Company. 

27481 

...  1902 

...  B.  Kronenberg. 

SEAMLESS    OR   WELDLESS. 

8536 

...  1840 

...A.  S.  Stocker.     (Hollow  ingot  of  malleable 

cast  iron.) 

12334 

...  1848 

..  J.  0.  York.     (Hollow  cast  steel  ingots.) 

13037 

...  1850 

...  E.  A.  Chameroy.     (Tubular  billets  of  iron.) 

472 

...  1854 

...  J.  D.   M.  Stirling.       (Cast   steel   tubular 

ingots.) 

688 

...  1854 

...  J.     Newman.        (Wrought     iron     hollow 

billets.) 

1023 

...  1863 

...  J.  Thompson.     (Tubular  billets.) 

441 

...  1874 

...  E.  P.  Wilbur.     (Rolling  tube  from  solid 

ingot.) 

1467 

..    1888 

...  C.  A.  Marshall.     (Ingot  with  yielding  core.) 

8948 

...  1890 

...  G.  H.  Everson.     (Polishing,  etc.) 

4358 

...  1892 

...La    Campagnie    Francaise   des   Metraux. 

(Ribbed.) 

4794 

...  1893 

.  .  B.  and  G.  Shorthouse.     (Hollow  billets.) 

7643 

...  1895 

...  C.  G.  P.  de  Laval.     (Hollow  billets.) 

23628 

...  1900 

...  H.  J.  Brookes.         (Hollow  billets.) 

* 

***** 

2009 

...  1878 

...  E.    Quadling.       (Direct   from   molten   or 

plastic  metal.) 

846 

...  1882 

.,  R.  Elliott.     (Direct  from  molten  or  plastic 

metal.) 

1590 

...  1889 

...  W.    E.    Koch.      (Direct   from   molten  or 

plastic  metal.) 

19153 

...  1890 

.  .  .  Morton  and  Adcock.     (Direct  from  molten 

or  plastic  metal.  ) 

15912 

...1891 

...  Lane    and    Chamberlain.       (Direct    from 

molten  or  plastic  metal  ) 

IRON   AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


145 


No.  Year.  Name. 

14078  ...  1894  ...  A.  F.  E.  Dupont.     (Direct  from  molten  or 

plastic  metal.) 
22748  ...  1894  ...  A.  F.  E.  Dupont.  (Direct  from  molten  or 

plastic  metal.) 
10475  ...  1897  ...  G.  H.  Clowes.  (Direct  from  molten  or 

plastic  metal.) 


13534  ... 

1851 

5597  ... 

1882 

2552  ... 

1884 

5265  ... 

1885 

10315  ... 

1885 

18386... 

1890 

11095... 

1891 

20364  ... 

1891 

12144  ... 

1892 

1270... 

1893 

8438  ... 

1900 

•K- 

1018... 

1864 

15752  ... 

1884 

1167  ... 

1885 

9939  ... 

1886 

666  ... 

1887 

6453  ... 

1887 

5018  ... 

1888 

14799  ... 

1888 

1627  ... 

1890 

3116  ... 

1891 

11436  ... 

1891 

7497  ... 

1892 

24... 

1893 

533  ... 

1893 

14352  ... 

1893 

23702  ... 

1895 

1064  ... 

1896 

3054  ... 

1896 

14801  ... 

1896 

llST 

..  A.  F.  Redmond.     (Drawn  blanks  or  discs.) 

..S.Walker.  „ 

..S.  Fox. 

..  W.  H.  Brown.  „ 

..  W.  H.  Brown. 

..  Pilkington  and  others. 

..  Taylor  and  Challen. 

..  Cayley  and  Courtman. 

. .  G.  Hookham. 

..  B.  Hewitt.  ,, 

..  F.  Deeming.  ,, 

*  *  *  *  * 

..  J.  Thompson.     (Piercing  solid  billets.) 

.   J.  Robertson.  ,, 

..  R.  and  M.  Mannesmann.  „ 

,.  R.  and  M.  Mannesmann.  „ 

,.  R.  and  M.  Mannesmann.  „ 

..  R.  and  M.  Mannesmann.  „ 

..  J.  Robertson.  „ 

..  Pilkington  and  others.  „ 

..  J.  Robertson.  ,, 

..  H.  Ehrhardt.  „ 

..  J.  Robertson.  „ 
..  H.  Ehrhardt. 

. .  Wiistenhofer  and  Surmann  „ 

,.  P.  Hesse.  „ 

, .  Wiistenhofer  and  Surmann  ,, 

..  R.  Stiefel.  „ 

..  R.  Bungeroth.  „ 

,.  J.  Robertson.  ,, 

.  E.  Hollings.  „ 


146 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


Xo. 

Year. 

17470... 

1896 

17950  ... 

1896 

21177  ... 

1896 

22806  ... 

1896 

10647  ... 

1897 

13386  ... 

1897 

14001  ... 

1897 

14562  ... 

1897 

29105  ... 

1897 

30358... 

1897 

30449  ... 

1897 

611  ... 

1898 

8148... 

1898 

9144... 

1898 

932... 

1899 

7963... 

1899 

12828... 

1899 

15772... 

1899 

21237  ... 

1899 

3329  .. 

1691  ., 

4312  .. 
10878  ., 
15317  . 
17326. 

1716  . 

3162  .. 

4132  . 

7781  ., 


.  1900 
.  1901 
.  1901 
.  1901 
.  1901 
.  1901 
.  1902 
.  1902 
.  1902 
.  1902 


Name. 

.  W.  <fc  A.  Pilkington.  (Piercing  solid  billets.) 

.  W.  and  A.  Pilkington.  „ 

,.  P.  Hesse.  „ 
,.  J.  L.  B.  Templer. 

. .  J.  A.  Hampton.  ,, 

.  Sharp  and  Billing.  ,, 

..  J.  A.  Charnock.  „ 

..  Sharp  and  Billing.  ,, 

..  Tannahill  and  Eadie.  „ 

,.  E.  L.  Cooper.  „ 
,.R.  C.  Stiefel. 
..R.  C.  Stiefel. 

..  J.  C.  Sturgeon.  ,, 
..  W.  Pilkington. 

,.  J.  A.  Hampton.  ,, 

,.  E.  Pilkington.  „ 

..  L.  D.  Davis.  „ 

..  E.  L.  Cooper.  ,, 
..  Hernad thaler  Ungarische 

Eisenindustrie 

Actiengesellschaft.  „ 

..  T.  Ledermiiller.  „ 
..  S.  E.  Diescher. 

..  C.  de  Los  Rice.  „ 
. .  Evans  and  Tubes  Ltd. 

..  A.  Pilkington.  ,, 
..H.  R.  Keithley. 

..B.  F.  McTear.  „ 
..  (jr.  Gleichmann. 

..  F.  D.  Everitt.  „ 

..  Joseph  and  Tubes  Ltd.  ,, 


748  ...  1852 
2533  ...  1861 
2614...  1861 
1525...  1862 
3251  ...  1864 
32&)  ...  1865 


,.  J.  Dumery. 

..  Christoph  and  others. 

..  Bourne  and  Kidd. 

..  E.  Fewtrell. 

.  W.  H.  Brown. 

,.  T.  Rickett. 


(Rolling.) 


IRON   AND   STEEL  TUBES. 


147 


No. 

Year. 

538  ... 

1866  .. 

3333  ... 

1867  .. 

1980... 

1870  .. 

657  ... 

1878.. 

2939  ... 

1878.. 

3928  ... 

1878  .. 

4201  ... 

1878  .. 

35... 

1879  .. 

752... 

1879  .. 

1566  ... 

1879  .. 

371  ... 

1880.. 

,5202  ... 

1882  .. 

1033  ... 

1883  .. 

2844  ... 

1883.. 

7462  ... 

1884  .. 

5754  ... 

1885  .. 

9537... 

1885  .. 

6453  ... 

1887  .. 

10796  ... 

1887  .. 

12042... 

1887  .. 

13760... 

1887  .. 

14515... 

1887.. 

14532  ... 

1887  .. 

5018  ... 

1888  .. 

6493  ... 

1888.. 

6494  ... 

1888  .. 

9754  ... 

1888.. 

14278  ... 

1888  .. 

18477  ... 

1888  .. 

2933... 

1889  .. 

8496  ... 

1889  .. 

16934  ... 

1889  .. 

11047  ... 

1890.. 

16990  ... 

1890  .. 

17162  ... 

1890.. 

3771  ... 

1891  .. 

4050  ... 

1891  .. 

15265  ... 

1891  .. 

4595  ... 

1892  .. 

Name. 

W.  Webb.  (Rolling.) 

W.  F.  Brooks.  „ 

H.  Kesterton.  „ 

Waldenstrom  and  Sumner.     „ 

J.  G.  Williams. 

A.  Clifford. 

J.  Robertson.  ,, 

S.  Fox. 

S.  Fox. 

G.  Whitehead. 

J.  Atkinson.  „ 

G.  Little.  „ 

P.  M.  Parsons.  ,, 

C.  Kellogg. 

F.  Johnson. 

T.  R.  Bayliss. 

C.  Kellogg. 

R.  and  M.  Mannesman!!.        „ 

Cope  and  Hollings.  ,, 

C.  Kellogg. 

C.  White.  „ 

M.  Gledhill. 

M.  Gledhill. 

J.  Robertson.  „ 

S.  T.  M.  Tasker.  „ 

S.  T.  M.  Tasker.  „ 

R.  Mannesmann.  „ 

Pilkington  and  others  „ 

W.  H.  Appleton. 

C.  Kellogg. 

Faulkner  and  Lloyd 

Pilkinaton  and  others 

E.  F.  Randolph. 

C.  Kellogg. 

W.  Heckert.  „ 

M.  Mannesmann.  „  Pilger. 

M.  Maunesmann.  ,,  Pilger. 

A.  Mathies.  ,, 

R.  Mannesmann. 


148 


THE  MANUFACTURE  OF 


No. 

Year. 

7135  ... 

1892  .. 

12473  ... 

1892  .. 

12482... 

1892  .. 

533... 

1893  .. 

1548... 

1893  .. 

9657  ... 

1893.. 

13878  ... 

1893  .. 

15261  ... 

1893  .. 

3038... 

1894  .. 

7332  ... 

1894.. 

18958... 

1894  .. 

20690  ... 

1894  .. 

3176... 

1895  .. 

7852  ... 

1895  .. 

9696  ... 

1895  .. 

11787  ... 

1895  .. 

13092  ... 

1895  ... 

22979  ... 

1895  .. 

13746  ... 

1895.. 

1424H... 

1895  .. 

16486  ... 

1895  .., 

18255  ... 

1895.. 

22979  ... 

1895  .. 

854... 

1896  .. 

3683... 

1896.. 

6571  ... 

1896  .. 

11775... 

1896  .. 

15895... 

1896  .. 

21177  ... 

1896.. 

22770... 

1866.., 

27488... 

1896.. 

9880  ... 

1897.., 

9917  ... 

1897  ... 

11311  ... 

1897  ... 

14070... 

1987... 

14186  ... 

1897... 

30450... 

1897... 

612... 

1898  .., 

3911  ... 

1898  ... 

Name. 

R.  Mannesmann 
G.  Hatton. 
Cope  and  Rollings. 
P.  Hesse. 

B.  Butterworth. 
Pilkington  and  others. 
W.  Holland. 

E.  Martin. 

F.  0.  and  W.  Schulte. 

C.  G.  Larson. 

E.  F.  Hall. 
P.  Hesse. 

F.  0.  and  W.  Schulte. 
Pilkington  and  others. 
Pilkingtoii  and  others. 
P.  Hesse. 

Pilkington  and  others. 
Pilkington  and  others. 
R.  and  M.  Mannesmann. 
R.  and  M.  Mannesmann. 
R.  and  M.  Manuesmann. 

,  C.  G.  Larson. 
Pilkingtoii  and  others. 
H.  Ehrhardt, 
M.  Mannesmann. 
R.  and  M.  Mannesmann. 
J.  Davis. 

C.  T.  B.  Sangster. 
P.  Hesse. 
J.  Wotherspoon. 
Hamilton  and  Miller. 
W.  Pilkington. 
Price  and  others 
H.  Ehrhardt. 
J.  Wotherspoon. 
W.  and  A.  Pilkington 
R.  C.  Stiefel. 
R.  C.  Stiefel. 
Lones  and  Holden. 


(Rolling.) 


Pilger. 
Pilger. 


Pilger. 
Pilger. 


Pilger. 

Pilo-er. 
Pilger. 

Pilger, 
Pilger. 


Pilger. 


IRON  AND  STEEL  TUBES. 


140 


Xo. 

Year. 

Name. 

7787  ... 

1898 

...  Tamiahi.il  and  Eadie. 

(Rolli 

21744  ... 

1898 

...  Lones  and  Holden. 

n 

25122  ... 

1898 

...  McTear  and  Lindsay. 

55 

25580... 

1898 

...  0.  Klatte. 

}5 

79S3  ... 

1899 

...  E.  Pilkington. 

51 

12747  ... 

1899 

...  H.  Ehrhardt. 

55 

12828  ... 

1899 

.  .  .  L.  D.  Davis. 

» 

15072... 

1899 

...  0.  Klatte. 

}J 

17473  ... 

1899 

...H.  R.  Keithley. 

55 

19087  ... 

1899 

...B.  F.  McTear. 

55 

23365  ... 

1899 

...B.  F.  McTear. 

5  5 

23741  ... 

1899 

...  0.  Klatte. 

55 

25636  ... 

1899 

...  J.  Gieshoidt. 

5} 

3329  ... 

1900 

...  T.  Ledermiiller. 

55 

3580... 

1900 

...  Aston  and  Holland. 

55 

3788  ... 

1900 

...  G.  Beesly. 

„ 

5425  ... 

1900 

...  H.  Perrins. 

55 

5927  ... 

1900 

...  A.  E.  Beck. 

7315  ... 

1900 

...  H.  Perrins. 

55 

12203  ... 

1900 

...  A.  E.  Beck. 

55 

13981  ... 

1900 

...  Laybourne  and  Marsh. 

55 

14416  ... 

1900 

...  0.  Heer. 

9i 

92... 

1901 

...  R.  C.  Stiefel. 

5» 

1481  ... 

1901 

...  J.  Gieshoidt. 

5> 

2590... 

1901 

...  Bartlett  and  Kent. 

55 

6639  ... 

1901 

...  R.  C.  Stiefel. 

55 

13291  ... 

1901 

...  J.  Reimann. 

13519  ... 

1901 

...  B.  F.  McTear. 

55 

14384... 

1901 

.  .  .  Chamberlain  and  Tubes  I 

A.    „ 

14615... 

1901 

...  B.  F.  McTear. 

55 

16385  ... 

1901 

...  0.  Briede. 

55 

21533  ... 

1901 

...  J.  Gieshoidt. 

55 

21570... 

1901 

~.  J.  A.  Hampton. 

55 

23455  ... 

1901 

...  A.  E.  Beck. 

55 

23992  ... 

1901 

...  R.  C.  Stiefel. 

5' 

25307  ... 

1901 

...  R.  Mengelbeir. 

55 

3372  ... 

1902 

...  La  Societe  Vogt  et  Cie. 

J) 

4553  ... 

1902 

...  M.  Mannesmann. 

.4554  ... 

1902 

...  M.  Mannesmann. 

55 

Pilger. 


Pilger. 
Pilger. 
Pilger. 
Pilger. 
Pilger. 
Pilger. 
Pilger. 


Pilger. 


Pilger. 

Pilger. 
Pilger. 


150 


THE   MANUFACTURE    OF 


No. 

Year: 

Name. 

4625 

...  1902 

...  M.  Mannesmann. 

(Rolling.) 

4626 

...  1902 

...  M.  Mannesmann. 

4627 

...  1902 

...  M.  Mannesmann. 

4628 

...  1902 

...  M.  Mannesmann. 

4629 

...  1902 

...  M.  Mannesmann. 

t 

4956 

...  1902 

...  J.  A.  Hampton. 

Pilger. 

20207 

...  1902 

...  Stirling  Co. 

21636 

"...  1902 

...  J.  Sandner. 

„ 

* 

*             *             * 

*              * 

748 

...  1852 

...  C.  J.  Dumery. 

(Drawing.) 

3090 

...  1856 

...  Speed  and  Bailey. 

J? 

2533 

...  1861 

...  Christoph  and  others. 

^ 

3262 

...  1862 

.  .  .  Christoph  and  others. 

n 

1462 

...  1866 

.  .  .  Gibson  and  Ellis. 

J} 

3333 

...  1867 

...  W.  F.  Brooks. 

2511 

...  1877 

...  W.  C.  Stiff. 

n 

4201 

...  1878 

...  J.  Robertson. 

4022 

...  1879 

.  .  .  Stewart  and  others. 

1929 

...  1882 

...  W.  Randle. 

55 

491 

...  1883 

...  T.  B.  Sharp. 

5) 

5876 

...  1883 

...C.  C.  Billings. 

9560 

...  1884 

...  J.  Short. 

n 

15752 

...  1884 

...  J.  Robertson. 

" 

12823 

...  1885 

...  Stiff  and  Bennett. 

5268 

...1887 

.  .  .  W.  von  Flotow  and  H.  L< 

3idig.  „ 

12766 

...  1887 

.  .  .  V.  J.  Feeney. 

5018 

...  1888 

...  J.  Robertson. 

v 

12624 

...  1888 

...  W.  Lorenz. 

„  (Releasing.) 

3519 

...  1893 

...  W.  and  J.  Crawford. 

}J 

9657 

...  1893 

.  .  .  Pilkington  and  others. 

>» 

19356 

...  1893 

.  .  .  J.  Robertson. 

i) 

12012 

...  1894 

.  .  .  Wootton  and  Hewitt. 

12270 

...  1894 

...  Wootton  and  Gould. 

i           11 

2474 

...  1895 

...  J.  Hudson. 

5389 

...  1895 

.  .  .  Wootton  and  Hewitt. 

5478 

...  1895 

...  R.  Wootton. 

> 

9696 

...  1895 

.  .  .  Pilkington  and  others. 

,           ,, 

also  reducing. 


IRON   AND   STEEL   TUBES. 


151 


No, 

17208 

Year. 

...  1895 

Name. 

.  .  .  Pilkington  and  others.     (Drawing  and 

Releasing.) 

17211 

...  1S95 

...G.  Platt, 

530 

...  1896 

...  Pilkington  and  others.            ,,           ,, 

4569 

...  1896 

...  G.  Platt.                                   ,, 

6149 

...  1896 

...  W.  and  A.  Pilkiugton.            ,,           „ 

8277 

...  1896 

...  J.  Hudson.                               ,,            ,3 

11260 

...  1896 

...  R.  F.  Hall  and  others.             „           ,, 

25686 

...  1896 

.  .  .  W.  A.  McCool. 

1192 

...  1897 

...A.  Smallwood.                          ,, 

6270 

...  1897 

...  J.  Robertson.                           ,, 

10539 

...  1897 

...A.  C.  Wright. 

17157 

...  1897 

...A.  C.  Wright.                           „ 

23400 

...  1897 

.  .  .  A.  Smallwood.                          „ 

24266 

...  1897 

...  P.  E.  Secretan.                         „ 

28699 

...  1897 

.  .  .  E.  Ivins.                                   ,,           „ 

4897 

...  1898 

...W.  A.  McCool. 

12188 

...1898 

.  .  .  H.  Ehrhardt.                            „ 

4443 

...  1899 

...A.  M.  Reynolds.                       ,, 

12747 

...  1899 

...  H.  Ehrhardt,                             „ 

14854 

...  1899 

...  J.  L.  Kempson.                        ,, 

15419 

...  1899 

...  G.  Muntz.                                 ,, 

17473 

...  1899 

...H.  R.  Keithley. 

6640 

...1901 

...  Stiefel  and  Brown.                   ,, 

8749 

...  1901 

..,T.  B.  Sharp.                              „ 

1(5582 

...  1901 

...B.  F.  McTear.                          „ 

18041 

...  1901 

...  Hudson  Bros,  and  K  night.     „ 

5752 

...  1902 

...  W.  Sumner.                              „ 

SWAGING,    DRIFTING,    AND    OTHER   TUBE-MAKING    OPERATIONS 
AND    MACHINES. 


9200  ...  1885  . 

3038  ...  1886  . 

3039  ...  1886  . 
4039  ...  1891  . 

13935  ...  1891  . 
20467  ...  1897  . 
16043  ...  1899  . 
20943  ...  1899  . 


..S.  Fox. 

..  Babcock  and  Wilcox. 
..  Babcock  and  Wilcox. 
..  G.  Hookham. 
..  J.  P.  Kennedy. 
..  G.  J.  Capewell. 
..A.  E.  Beck. 
..  H.  A.  Eckstein. 


152 


THE   MANUFACTURE   OF 


No. 

Year. 

Name. 

1679  ... 

1901 

...  Lones  and  Holden. 

4312  ... 

1901 

...  C.  de  Los  Rice. 

12927  ... 

1901 

...Stirling  Co. 

12928... 

1901 

...  Stirling  Co. 

12949  ... 

1901 

...  Stirling  Co. 

12952... 

1901 

...  Stirling  Co. 

22969  ... 

1901 

...  Stirling  Co. 

STRENGTHENING,    THICKENING,    AND    STAVING,    ETC. 

5573... 

1827 

...  R.  W.  Winfield.     (Wood  filling.) 

565  ... 

1854 

...  W.  B.  Johnson.     (Staving.) 

901  ... 

1866 

...  Deakin  and  Johnson.     (Swaging,  etc.) 

4574... 

1896 

...  Smillie  and  Bird.     (Coiled  wire  or  tape.) 

4702  ... 

1896 

...  A.  Kirschbaum.     (Cork  filling.) 

344  ... 

1897 

...T.  N.  Waller.     (Staving.) 

14530... 

1898 

.  .  .  J.  R.  Blakeslee.     (Staving.) 

12206... 

1901 

...P.  Fowler.     (Strengthening  by  air  under 

pressure.) 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

560... 

1853 

...  R.  A.  Brooman.     (Roller  dies.) 

1680... 

1855 

...  R.  A.  Brooman.     (Roller  dies.) 

1105  ... 

1856 

...  R.  A.  Brooman.     (Segmental  dies.) 

1570  ... 

1870 

...  R.  Briggs.     (Operating  die  tongs.) 

4361  ... 

1880 

...  .1.  C.  Johnson.     (T  pieces,  etc.) 

1.70... 

1881 

...  W.  H.  Brown.      (Combined   reeling   and 

rolling.) 

2998... 

1881 

.  .  .  A.  L.  Murphy.    (Tubes  from  puddled  iron.) 

3041  ... 

1881 

...  A.  L.  Murphy.  (Tubes  from  puddled  iron.) 

3060  ... 

1881 

...  W.   H.    Brown.      (Combined  reeling  and 

rolling.) 

1771  ... 

1882 

...  Fox  and  Whitley.     (Furnaces.) 

1033... 

1883 

...  1*.  M.  Parsons.     (Rotating  mandrels.) 

9560... 

1884 

...  J.  Short.     (Rotating  dies.) 

5436  ... 

1887 

...  J.  P.  Serve.     (Ribs.) 

7709  .... 

1888 

...  J.  P.  Serve.     (Ribs.) 

15059... 

1888 

.  .  .  W.  Lorenz.     (Internal  partition.  ) 

10470... 

1889 

...  J.  P.  Serve.     (Internal  ribs.) 

176  ... 

1890 

...  H.  Moerchen.     (Filling  before  drawing.) 

IRON   AND   STEEL   TUBES. 


153 


No  Year.  Name. 

8152  ...  1890  ...  C.  Kellogg.     (Mandrels.) 
8948  ...  1890  ...  G.  H.  Everson.     (Polishing,  etc.) 
3122  ...  1891  ...  J.  G.  Bohl.     (Revolving  die.) 
16811  ...  1891  ...  G.  Hookham.     (Revolving  die.) 
4358  ...  1892  ...  La    Compagnie    Francaise    des    Metaux. 

(Ribbed.) 

6884  ...  1893  ...  C.  G.  Larson.     (Ribs.) 
15927  ...  1893  ...  Stewart  and  Clydesdale.     (Mandrels.) 
6697  ...  1894  ...  J.  Ritchie.     (Internal  ribs.) 
8320  ...  1894  ...  A.  Dumas.     (Internal  ribs.) 
13095  ...  1894  ...  C.  Wilmott.     (Ornamenting.) 

4493  ...  1896  ...  C.  E.  Smith.     (Mandrels.) 
11950  ...  1896  ...  H.  Loesner.     (Twisted  or  interlaced  wire 

and  molten  metal.) 

J.  Aylward.  (Special  form  of  cycle  tubing.) 
C.  T.  B.  Sangster.     (Tagging,  etc.) 
It.  S.  Lovelace.  (Tempering  or  toughening.) 
T.  Key.     (Riveted  tubes  tor  cycles.) 
W.  Hillman.     (Sheet  metal  cycle  tubes.) 
E.  Taylor.     (Riveted  tubes  for  cycles.) 
W.  E.  Partridge.    (Moulding  cycle  tubing. ) 
Safety  Conduit  Co.     (Cleaning  tubes.) 
E.  Gearing.     (Welding  furnaces.) 
E.  F.  G.  Pein.     (Enamelling  tubes.) 
H.  Walters.     (Furnace.) 
E.  Ehrhardt.     (Gun  barrels.) 
E.  Jones.     (Tubes  for  roller  bearings.) 
A.  Schmitz.     (Internally  ribbed  compound 

pipes.) 

1900  ...  J.  Earle.     (Compound  tube.) 
1900  ...  A.  Schmitz.  (Tubes  with  internal  partition.) 

1900  ...  H.  Perrins.     (Internally  ribbed  tube.) 

1901  ...  F.  Stordeur.     (Internal  examination.) 
1901  ...  Stirling  Co.     (Mandrel  for  forming  boiler 

headers,  etc.) 
17319  ...  1901  ...  J.  E.  Goldschmid.       (Heating  furnace  for 

tubes.) 

1413  ...  1903  ,..  F.  Reissner.      (Metallic  poles  for  electric 
railways,  etc.) 


12389... 

1896 

15896  ... 

1896 

21175  ... 

1896 

27405  ... 

1896 

4890... 

1897 

8466  ... 

1897 

21804... 

1897 

11500... 

1898 

16668... 

1898 

1581  ... 

1899 

8226  ... 

1899 

9660  ... 

1899 

10184  ... 

1899 

24959.. 

1899 

1309 
7417 

19621 
2934 

12928 


INDEX. 


Adcock's  Patent,  27. 

Admiralty  Tests  and  Requirements,  115, 

121. 

Alvord's  Patent,  131. 
Annealing,  115. 
Astbury's  Patent,  108. 


B 

Back-action  Rolls,  97. 
Beck's  Patent,  100. 
Benches,  Draw,  6,  108. 
Bending,  59. 
Bennett's  Patent,  42. 
Billet  Defects,  84,  91. 
Billet  Piercing,  32,  70,  83. 
Billet,  Waste  End,  91. 
Billing's  Patent,  90. 
Bishop's  Patent,  47. 
Bloom  Stretching,  97,  100. 
Bourne's  Patent,  23. 
Brazed  Cased  Tubes,  131. 
Brazed  Tubes,  21,  23. 
Bright  Annealing,  115. 
Brooks's  Patent,  19. 
Broughton's  Patent,  19. 
Brown's  Patent,  27. 
Butt  Ends,  114. 
Butt  Welding,  5,  124. 


Carbon  in  Tube  Steel,  121. 

Cased  Tubes,  130. 

Cayley's  Patent,  31. 

Centrifugal  .Force,  Application  of,  70. 

Challen's  Patent,  28. 

Charnock's  Patent,  87. 

Close  Annealing,  115. 

Close  Joint  Tubes,  16. 

Coiled  Strip  Tubes,  20. 

Coiling,  .f>9. 

Cold  Drawing,  104,  108. 

Combined  Annealing  and  Pickling,  116. 


Combined  Drawing  and  Rolling,  113. 

Consolidated  Tubes,  21. 

Cooling  Mandrel,  65. 

Cooper's  Patent,  94. 

Cope's  Patent,  69. 

Courtman's  Patent,  31. 

Credenda  Tube,  42. 

Cycle  Tubing,  120. 


Davis's  Patent,  90. 
Defects  in  Billets,  84,  91. 
Die,  Hydraulic,  74. 
Die,  Revolving,  67,  70. 
Die,  Roller.  69. 
Die,  Sliding,  71. 
Draw  Benches,  6,  108. 
Drawing,  104,  108,  113. 
Drawn  Blanks  or  Discs,  27. 
Drilling  Billets,  84. 


Earle's  Patent,  23. 
Ehrhardt's  Patents,  75,  94,  102. 
Electric  Pickling,  116. 
Elliott's  Patents,  25. 
Evans's  Patents,  92. 
Extending  Processes,  27. 
Exton's  Patent,  23. 


Feeding  Machine  for  Pilgcr  Rolling,  100. 
Fieldhouse's  Patent,  19. 
Frank's  Patent,  91. 


Gapped  Rolls,  97. 
Gas  Bottles,  31. 
Gaskell's  Patent,  23. 
Gas  Tubes,  3,  123. 
Gun  Barrels,  2. 


INDEX 


H 

Harvey's  Patent,  132. 
Heer's  Patent,  100. 
Helical  Grain  or  Fibre,  26. 
Hewitt's  Patent,  114. 
Hillman's  Patent,  21. 
Rolling's  Patent,  69. 
Hot  Rolling,  43,  60,  97,  104. 
Howard's  Patent,  14. 
Huggins's  Patent,  16. 
Hughes's  Patent,  116. 
Hydraulic  Die,  74. 


Ingot  Iron,  121. 
Internal  Taper,  44. 
Internal  Web,  23. 


Johnson's  Patent,  127. 
Jointed  Mandrel,  59. 


K 

Kellogg's  Patents,  59. 
Keithley's  Patents,  103. 


Lap-welding,  9,  124. 
Lay  bourne's  Patent,  99. 
Lawton's  Patent,  132. 
Lock  Joint  Tubes,  21,  132. 
Lorenz  Patent,  58. 
Lubricant,  112,  118. 


M 


Mandrel  Cooling,  65. 

Mandrel,  Jointed,  59. 

Mandrel,  Releasing,  54,  57,  110. 

Mandrel  Rollers,  64,  68. 

Mandrel,  Rotating,  89. 

Mannesmaim's  Patents,  32,  84,  97, 114. 

Marshall's  Patent,  50. 

Marsh's  Patent,  99. 

Molten  Metal,  Tubes  from,  25. 

Muck  Bars,  Tubes  from,  128. 

Muckley's  Patent,  13. 

Muntz's  Patent,  108. 


N 

Norton's  Patent,  25. 


Open  Joint  Tubes,  16. 
Osborn's  Patents,  2,  3. 


Paraffin  Wax  Coating,  118. 

Perrin's  Patents,  100,  128. 

Pickling,  115. 

Piercing  Solid  Billets,  32,  70,  S3. 

Piled  Hollow  Blooms,  128. 

Pilger  Rolls,  97. 

Pilger  Rolls  Feeding  Machine,  100. 

Pilkington's  Patents,  46,  48,  52,  55,  90. 

Plastic  Metal,  Tubes  from,  25. 

Poles,  Steel,  107. 

Price's  Patent,  99. 

Prosser's  Patent,  10. 

Puddled  Bar,  Tubes  from,  128. 


Reeling,  54,  57,  110. 
Releasing  Mandrel,  54,  57,  110. 
Revolving  Die,  67,  70. 
Reynolds's  Patent,  114. 
Rickett's  Patent,  44. 
Ries's  Patent,  126. 
Robertson  Patents,  70,  90. 
Rokes,  92,  119. 
Roller  Die,  69. 
Roller  Mandrels,  64,  68. 
Rolling  Tubes,  48,  60,  97. 
Round's  Patent,  59. 
Rotating  Mandrel,  89. 
Russell's  Patents,  4,  11,  122. 


Seamless,  24,  83. 
Service  Plate,  72,  90. 
Sharp's  Patent,  90. 
Shells,  92. 
Short's  Patent,  68. 
Sliding  Die,  71. 
Spencers'  Tubes,  123. 
Squirting,  70. 
Steam  Tubes,  9,  123. 
Steel  for  Weldless  Tubes,  IIP. 
Step-by-Step  Rolls,  97. 
Stretching  Blooms,  97,  106. 
Stiefel's  Patents,  40,  84. 
Stiff's  Patent,  42. 
Stirling's  Patent,  24. 
Sturgeon's  Patent,  90. 


156 


INDEX. 


Taper  Tubes,  46,  50,  107. 
Tasker's  Patents,  64. 
Taylor's  Patent,  28. 
Tests,  120. 

Tin  as  Lubricant,  112. 
Tubes  Limited,  90,  92. 
Tube  Rolling.  48,  60. 
Tuyer's  Patent,  125. 


Vaughan  Hughes's  Patent,  lit!. 


w 

Waste  End  in  Billet  Piercing,  91. 
Water's  Patent,  50. 
Water  Tubes,  123. 
Welded  Tubes,  2,  122. 
Whitehouse's  Patents,  5.  11. 
Wilmot's  Patent,  21. 
Wright's  Patent,  112,  132. 


Yielding  Core,  50. 


JOHN  HEYWOOD,  Excelsior  Printing  and  Bookbinding  Works  Manchebter. 


Third  Edition.     Crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  4s.  6d.  net,  post  free 
anywhere. 

THE  INDICATOR  AND  ITS  DIAGRAMS:  WITH 
CHAPTERS  ON  ENGINE  AND  BOILER  TESTING. 

By  CHARLES  DAY,  Wh.Sc.  Including  a  Table  of  Piston  Constants. 
This  book  is  of  a  thoroughly  practical  character,  and  contains  numerous 
diagrams  from  actual  practice. 


Crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  7s.  6d.,  post  free. 

THE  MANAGEMENT   OF   SMALL  ENGINEER- 
ING   WOEKSHOPS.      By  ARTHUR   H.    BARKER,  B.A., 
B.Sc.,    Wh.Sc.,    &c.,    Author     of    "Graphical     Calculus,"    "Graphic 
Methods  of  Engine  Design,"  &c. 


Third  Edition.     Crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  5s.  net,  post  free 
anywhere. 

JJODERN   GAS  AND   OIL   ENGINES.     Profusely 

illustrated.  A  full  and  exhaustive  Treatment  of  the  Design  > 
Construction,  and  Working  of  Gas  and  Oil  Engines  up  to  date.  By 
FREDERICK  GROVER,  Assoc.M.Inst.C.E. 


Second  Edition.    Crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  4s.  6d.  net,  post  free 
anywhere. 

DROBLEMS  IN  MACHINE  DESIGN.    For  the  Use 

of  Students,  Draughtsmen,  and  others.     By  C.  H.  INNES,  M.A., 
Lecturer  on  Engineering  at  the  Rutherford  College,  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 


Crown  8vo,  price  Is.  6d.  net,  post  free. 

THE     TRUTH     ABOUT     THE     BELLEVILLE 

BOILER  IN  THE  BRITISH  NAVY.      By  ENGINEER 
VVILCKE,  Author  of  "  Haulage  of  Goods  on  Common  Roads." 


Second  Edition.     Crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  3s.  net,  post  free  anywhere. 

ENGINEERING    ESTIMATES    AND    COST 

'     ACCOUNTS.      By  F.   G.  BURTON,  formerly  Manager  of  the 
Milford  Haven  Shipbuilding  and  Engineering  Company  Limited. 


THE    TECHNICAL    PUBLISHING    COMPANY    LIMITED, 

287,  Deansgate,  Manchester.     JOHN  HEYWOOD,  29  and  30,  Shoe  Lane, 
London  ;  and  Deansgate,  Manchester  ;  and  all  Booksellers. 


Third  Edition.     Crown  8vo,  price  4s.  6d.  net,  post  free  anywhere. 

CENTRIFUGAL  PUMPS,  TURBINES,  &  WATER 

MOTORS :  including  the  Theory  and  Practice  of  Hydraulics 
(specially  adapted  for  engineers).  By  CHAS.  H.  INNES,  M.A., 
Lecturer  on  Engineering  at  the  Rutherford  College,  Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. 

Eighth  Edition.     Price  15s.  net,  post  free. 

THE    GAS    AND    OIL    ENGINE.    By    DUGALD 

CLERK,  A6SOC.M.I.C.E.,  Fellow  of  the  Chemical  Society,  Member 
of  the  Royal  Institution,  and  Fellow  of  the  Institute  of  Patent  Agents. 


Crown  8vo,  price  3s.  6d.  net,  post  free. 

JJOTES  ON  THE  CONSTRUCTION  AND  WORK- 
ING OF  PUMPS.     By  EDWARD  C.  R.   MARKS,  Assoc. 
M.Inst.C.E.,  M.LMeoh.E.,  &c. 


Price  Is.,  po&t  free. 

MOTES  ON  BOILER  TESTING.     By  FREDERICK 

GROVER,  M.I.Mech.E.,  A.M.Inst.C.E.,  &c. 


New  and  Enlarged  Edition.      Crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  3s.  6d.  net, 
post  free  anywhere. 

PRACTICAL  NOTES  ON  THE  CONSTRUCTION 

OF    CRANES   AND    LIFTING    MACHINERY.      By 
EDWARD  C.  R.  MARKS,  Assoc.M.Inst.C.E.,  MJ.Mech.E. 


Demy  8vu,  cloth,  price  3s.,  post  free  anywhere. 

gCREWS  AND    SCREW-MAKING.     Including  an 

Account  of  the  Origin  of  Whitworth's,  Swiss,  British  Association, 
and  American  Threads,  &c.;  with  95  Illustrations. 


Crown  Svo,  400pp.,  price  5s.  net,  post  free. 

]||ODERN  IRONFOUNDRY  PRACTICE.    Part  I. : 
Foundry  Equipment,  Materials  Used,  and  Processes 
Followed.     By  GEO.  R.  BALE,  Assoc.M.Inst.C.E. 


THE    TECHNICAL    PUBLISHING    COMPANY    LIMITED, 

287,  Deansgate,  Manchester.     JOHN  HEYWOOD,  29  and  30.  Shoe  Lane, 

London  ;  and  Deanegate,  Manchester  ;  and  all  Booksellers. 


Crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  6s.  net,  post  free  anywhere. 

THE  APPLICATION  OF  GRAPHIC  METHODS 

TO  THE  DESIGN  OF  STRUCTURES.  Profusely  illus- 
trated. A  Treatment  by  Graphic  Methods  of  the  Forces  and 
Principles  necessary  for  consideration  in  the  Design  of  Engineering 
Structures,  Hoofs,  Bridges,  Trusses,  Framed  Structures,  Walls,  Damsf 
Chimneys,  and  Masonry  Structures.  By  W.  W.  F.  PULLEN,  Wh.Sc., 
A,M.Inst.C.E.,  M.I.Mech.E. 


Recently  Published.     Price  9s.  net,  post  free. 

HYDRAULIC  POWER  ENGINEERING:  A 

Practical  Manual  on  the  Concentration  and  Trans- 
mission of  Power  by  Hydraulic  Machinery.  By  G. 
CROYDON  MARKS,  Assoc.M.Inst.C.E.,  M.Inst.M.E.,  Fellow  of  the 
Chartered  Institute  of  Patent  Agents. 


Price  5s.  net,  post  free  anywhere. 

THE  EVOLUTION  OF  MODERN  SMALL  ARMS 

AND    AMMUNITION.      By    EDWARD    C.    R.    MARKS. 

Assoc.M.Inst.C.E.,  M.I.Mech.E.,  &c.,  Fellow  of  the  Chartered  Institute 
of  Patent  Agents. 

Crown  &vo,  price  Is.  6d.  net,  post  free  anywhere. 

MECHANICAL  ENGINEERING  MATERIALS.  By 

EDWARD    C.    R.    MARKS,     Assoc.M.Inst.C.E.,    M.I.Mech.E., 

Fellow  of  the  Chartered  Institute  of  Patent  Agents. 


Just  Published.     Cloth.     Price  5s.  net,  post  free. 

SPECIFICATION  OF  A  LANCASHIRE  BOILER 

AND  ITS  SEATING. 


Just  Published.     Cloth.     Price  5s.  net,  post  free. 

THE   RESISTANCE  AND   POWER  OF  STEAM- 

SHIPS.     By  W.  H.  ATHERTON,  M.Sc.,  and  A.  L.  MELLANBY, 
M.Sc. 


THE    TECHNICAL    PUBLISHING    COMPANY    LIMITED, 

287,  Deansgate,  Manchester.     JOHN  HEYWOOD,  29  and  30,  Shoe  Lane, 

London  ;  and  Deansgate,  Manchester  ;  and  all  Booksellers. 


Just  Published.     Price  5s.  net,  post  free. 

CONTINUOUS    CURRENT    DYNAMOS    AND 

MOTORS  AND  THEIR  CONTROL.  By  W.  R.  KELSEY, 
B.Sc.,  A.I.E.E.,  F.Ph.S.,  Electrical  Inspector  under  the  Board  of  Trade 
to  the  Taunton  Corporation. 


Crown  8vo,  price  5s.  net,  post  free. 

THE    CHEMISTRY    OF    MATERIALS    OF 

ENGINEERING.     By  A.  HUMBOLDT  SEXTON,  Professor 
of  Metallurgy  in  the  Glasgow  and  West  of  Scotland  Technical  College. 


Demy  8vo,  cloth,  price  3s.,  post  free  anywhere. 
TURNING  LATHES.     A  Manual  for  Technical  Schools 
and   Apprentices.     A   Guide   to   Turning,    Screw-cutting,   Metal 
Spinning,  &c.,  &c.     With  194  Illustrations.     By  J.  LUKIN,  B.A. 


Crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  3s.  6d.  net,  post  free  anywhere. 

GRAPHIC    METHODS    OF    ENGINE    DESIGN. 

By  A.  H.  BARKER,  B.A.,  B.Sc.,  Wh.Sc.,  Author  of  "  Graphical 
Calculus,"  &c. 


Crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  2s.  6d.  net,  post  free  anywhere. 

THE  NAVAL  ENGINEER  AND  THE  COMMAND 

OF    THE    SEA.      By   FRANCIS    G.    BURTON,   Author    of 
"  Engineering  Estimates  and  Cost  Accounts,"  &c. 


Crown  8vo,  cloth,  price  5s.  net,  post  free  anywhere. 

MARINE    ENGINEERS:    THEIR    QUALIFICA- 
TIONS   AND    DUTIES.      With  Notes  on  the  Care  and 
Management    of    Marine  Engines,    Boilers,   Machinery,  &c.     By  E.  G. 
CONSTANTINE,  Assoc.M.Inst.C.E.,  MJ.Mech.E. 


THE   TECHNICAL    PUBLISHING   COMPANY   LIMITED, 

287,  Deansgate,  Manchester.     JOHN  HEY  WOOD,  29  and  30,  Shoe  Lane. 

London  ;  and  Deansgate,  Manchester  ;  and  all  Booksellers. 


UNIVEKSITY  OF  CALIFOENIA  LIBRAEY, 
BEEKELEY 


THIS  BOOK  IS  DUE  ON  THE  LAST  DATE 
STAMPED  BELOW 

Books  not  returned  on  time  are  subject  to  a  fine  of 
50c  per  volume  after  the  third  day  overdue,  increasing 
to  $1.00  per  volume  after  the  sixth  day.  Books  not  in 
demand  may  be  renewed  if  application  is  made  before 
expiration  of  loan  period. 


r  si  1*11 


20rn-l,'22 


D     I   I   I 


308191 


UNIVERSITY  OF  CALIFORNIA  LIBRARY